By A. Erman Tekkaya, Werner Homberg, Alexander Brosius
60 novel methods in steel forming are awarded and defined intimately. Contributions from said foreign scientists representing the state-of-art in steel forming open a basic view on contemporary effects and a transparent view on calls for for brand new study initiatives.
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Extra resources for 60 Excellent Inventions in Metal Forming
Two shear bridges are arranged symmetrically by making partly tangential slots in the circular shape of the original test specimen. Hence the strain is localized in the bridges. By variing the position of the bridges an examination of anisotropic material behavior with defined direction is possible. Furthermore a reduction of torque permits the measurement of flow curves from high-strenght steel, since the danger of sliding through is reduced. Due to the symetric shape there is no danger of buckling and unwanted reaction moments, as are described for other cyclic tests.
1b a radial line is shown on the torsion specimen, which is distorted by rotation of the outer clamp. By tracking the deformation along the radial line, the shear strain can be determined. Á/ D r dr With increasing radial distance the strain decreases and becomes purely elastic at a safe distance. Through continuous measurement of the deformation and shear stress at a constant radial distance, the flow curve of a material is determined. If the load direction is reversed, it is possible to also determine cyclic flow curves.
1) Y D f A0 Fig. 2 Grooved platen for upsetting test (Source: Forging Commitee of JSTP) Fig. 2) h0 where h0 and A0 are the initial cross-sectional area of the specimen respectively, and P =A0 is the nominal pressure. The nominal constraining factor f and the average equivalent strain " are functions of reduction in height and they are determined by the use of the rigid-plastic FEM as given in Table 1. 3 Results at Room Temperature The average flow stress–average equivalent curves obtained by the present method is compared with the flow curves of the uniform compression test with repeated reshaping and lubrication for various metals at room temperature as shown in Fig.