A Practical Approach to Motor Vehicle Engineering and Maint. by A. Bonnick, D. Newbold

By A. Bonnick, D. Newbold

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These indicate the viscosity index of the oil (see Fig. 45). For engine oils the SAE grades are numbered: 5 W, 10 W, 15 W, 20 W, 30, 40, 50. The lower numbers indicate thin oils and the higher numbers indicate thicker, or higher-viscosity, oils. For the SAE grades 20, 30, 40 and 50, the viscosity is measured at an oil temperature of 100  C which is the normal oil temperature when the engine is running. The grading can be read on the right-hand side of the graph in Fig. 46. When selecting oil for an engine it is important that the one chosen is suitable for the engine itself and the conditions under which it will be used.

It is normally fixed. However, early opening and late closing of the inlet valve has an unhelpful effect 26 A practical approach to motor vehicle engineering and maintenance on low engine speed emissions and design developments, such as variable valve timing, have been introduced to improve emissions and other aspects of engine performance. Variable valve timing Variable valve timing is a development that has been enabled by the use of electronic control which permits valve timing to be changed while the engine is operating, to suit low speed, intermediate speed and high speed operation.

2. What advantages are there to having an over-size cylinder (the diameter of the cylinder larger than the stroke)? 3. What are the constructional differences between the combustion chamber of an SI engine and a direct injection Cl engine? 4. What safety aspects should be observed when working with petrol or diesel? 8 Cylinder arrangements and firing orders Fig. 11 A high-performance V eight-cylinder engine There are three arrangements which may be used for an engine. In-line engine The cylinders are arranged in a single row, one behind the other.

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