A Turning Point in Mamluk History: The Third Reign of by Amalia Levanoni

By Amalia Levanoni

This article bargains with the method of decline of the Mameluk nation (1250-1517). Its major thesis is that the origins of this strategy are to be present in the 3rd reign of al-Nasir Muhammad Ibn Qalawun, and extra in particular within the adjustments he effected within the Mameluk procedure. The Mameluk military used to be the 1st to be faced with those alterations, whose influence at the social and political lifetime of the Mameluk elite was once already felt in the course of al-Nasir's lifetime. this article follows the advancements to the tip of self sustaining Mameluk rule and divulges the transformation they wrought within the Mameluk code of values and political suggestions. a last bankruptcy bargains with the general fiscal decline of the Mameluk country and establishes the hyperlink of its numerous reasons - demographic decline, financial crises, the cave in of agriculture and - with Mameluk executive misrule. the realization is reached that it was once al-Nasir's expenditure coverage and its repercussions at the monetary reform which exhibit his reign as some degree of no go back.

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66b-67a. 55 Tadhkira, 1, pp. 234-235; al-Nuwayri, 2M, fol. 266b; Ibn al-Suqäci, p. 90; Wäfl, 10, p. 282; 15, p. 478; Sülük, 1, p. 802; Manhal, 3, pp. 423^424; Nujüm, 8, pp. 51-52, 194. A Al-Nuwayri, 2N, fol. 39b; Ibn al-Furät, 8, p. 59. 57 Al-Nuwayri, 2N, fol. 93b; Zubda, fol. 99a; Tadhkira, 1, p. 212. 58 Durar, 1, p. 374; Nahj, p. 26; Ibn al-Shihna, pp. 165-166. 59 Al-Nuwayrï, 2N, fol. 37b; Ibn al-Furät, 8, p. 192; Nujüm, 8, p. 68; Durar, 3, D. 348; Tadhkira, 1, p. 258; Fawät, 2, p. 173. A Al-Nuwayri, 20, fol.

3 Sülük, 2, p. 524; Nujüm, 9, pp. 12-13; Wäfi, 4, p. 366; 10, p. 287; Ibn alDawädäri, 9, pp. 196, 243; Durar, 2, p. 273; 4, p. 263; al-Nuwayri, 20, fol. 48a; Fawät, 2, p. 329; 'Uyün, fol. 50b; Tadhkira, 2, p. 21; Zetterstéen, p. 151; alYünîni, 2907/E4, fols. 163a, 165a, 177b, 180b, 181a, 181b, 183b, 189b, 214a, 218a-b, 222b; clqd, A2912/4, fols. 277b, 280b, 281a, 284b. 4 Initially, al-Nâşir Muhammad left the Manşüri amirs alone, for they were his father's followers and had supported him in his bid to regain power.

120a; al-Shuja£i, p. 33. 42 Al-Shujâ'ï, p. 219; Durar, 2, p. 10. 43 An intoxicating liquor made from grain and called al-düql, Ibn Battùta, 1, p. 361; see also editor's note, Nujüm, 10, p. 20. 44 Al-Nuwayrï, 19B, fols. 131a-132b; Sülük, 2, p. 291; Durar, 2, p. 10; alShujâ'î, p. 219. 45 Moreover, al-Nâşir Muhammad had his own relatives come to Egypt and awarded them amirate ranks on their arrival, and suitable iqtä'ät. 46 The discarding of the objective military criteria established during the rule of Baybars and Qaläwün is conspicuous also in the advancement of mamluks whom al-Nâşir Muhammad bought in the usual way.

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