Advanced Metallization for Ulsi Applications by T. S. Cale, F. S. Pintchovski

By T. S. Cale, F. S. Pintchovski

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S. W. Yeh and S. Ranganathan The authors are grateful to Prof. Brian Cantor for readily agreeing to write a foreword for the book, in spite of his hectic schedule as Vice Chancellor of the University of Bradford, UK. They are also highly indebted to all the authors of various papers that are referred to in this book. Their contributions have enhanced the quality of the book. Prof. Murty would like to specially thank his group members, Mayur, Guruvidyathri, Anirudh, Arul, Ameey and Dr. Sanjay, who have untiringly helped at various stages of the book.

S. Y. T. Shun. In the discussion on these trends, high solution hardening due to large lattice distortion and stronger bonding were proposed. 01 and 1 M, for 24 h. The addition of passive elements and the benefit of low free energy due to high entropy were thought to contribute the corrosion resistance. This study thus led to valuable suggestions about high-entropy effect, lattice distortion effect, and slow diffusion effect. Yeh had submitted the “HEA concept” paper to Science in January 2003 but finally unaccepted by Science.

This accidental discovery also led to the production of wootz steel in India around 300 BCE. This has been rightly celebrated as the most advanced material of the ancient world, as this steel was used to fashion the Damascus swords. The deciphering of wootz steel by European scientists led to the correlation between structure and properties at first and subsequently between composition, processing, structure, and properties. 3 shows that materials hypertetrahedron that links the above four with modeling is necessary to understand the performance of wootz steel.

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