Alfred B. Xuma: African, American, South African by Steven D. Gish

By Steven D. Gish

A biography of Dr. A.B. Xuma, the American-educated President of the African nationwide Congress within the Forties, and the 1st western-trained black South African health care provider to perform drugs in Johannesburg.

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Extra info for Alfred B. Xuma: African, American, South African

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72 Xuma's decision to enroll at Tuskegee probably came about shortly after he began teaching in 1912. Like other students who had achieved distinction in missionary schools, Xuma sought to break through the artificial ceiling that South African educational authorities had imposed on him because of his race. Tuskegee seemed to offer a means of breaking through this barrier. By speaking with returnees and reading the African press, Xuma became convinced that 'education by self-help' was a concept full of possibility - both for himself and his people.

Sihlali became the first African to earn the Cape matriculation certificate in 1880, those following in his footsteps were few and far between. 43 Africans' desire for higher education was not accommodated until 1916 with the opening of the South African Native College at Fort Hare. Those who aspired to a teaching career 'Seeds and Roots/ 1893-1913 17 could choose from a handful of institutions offering formalized courses in teacher training, but even these were in short supply relative to the population.

B. Du Bois began to criticize some of his basic tenets after 1900. In the minds of many Americans, the images of Booker T. 4 By design, Tuskegee's curriculum was thoroughly practical. '5 Students honed their vocational skills on the Tuskegee campus itself. They performed practically all of the manual labor required for the Institute community, including food production and service, construction, and general campus housekeeping and maintenance. In the eyes of Washington, such tasks were not mere chores, but rather apprenticeships that would give black students the necessary skills to uplift themselves and their communities in the future.

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