By R. H. Parker and D. W. Hopkins (Auth.)
Contents: advent to Thermodynamics Entropy, unfastened strength and Chemical Equilibrium suggestions response Kinetics Electrochemistry Interfacial Phenomena Extraction and Refining of Metals Corrosion and Electrodeposition
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Additional info for An Introduction to Chemical Metallurgy
Solid zinc, Cp(S) =22·38+10·04χ 10"3Γ J/mol. Liquid zinc, Cp(L]=31-38 J/mol. 04xlO-)dr+^+ J 3 if 8 dr. 693 1000 -[22-38 In T+1004x 10" 3 r] +10-50+ [31-38 In r ] 298 693 =22-89+10-50+11 -46=44-85. Thus, S1000=44-85+41-63=86-48 J/°K mol. Entropy is an extensive property of the system, so that entropy values are additive in the same way as heat contents. 9. When a spontaneous change takes place in a system, the Second Law of Thermodynamics states that the total entropy change of the system and its surroundings is positive.
It must be remembered that where heats of reaction are added and subtracted in this way, the experimental error in each result must be added to the rest to give the error in the overall heat of reaction. In the last example quoted, the errors in the heats of formation of Cu2S, Cu20 and S0 2 are ±1-7, ±2-9, ±0-4 kJ respectively, so that the error in the heat reaction will be (1·7)+2(2·9) +0-4, or ±7-9 kJ. This represents an error of ±6-6% in the final result compared with a maximum of ±2% in any of the heats of formation obtained from the tables.
FIG. 4. Rotation of one carbon atom with respect to another in an unbranched carbon chain. When the chain becomes branched, the rotation of the carbon atom in a branch becomes restricted by the presence of the carbon atom in the other branch. In addition to the disorder produced by motion of the molecules in a system (entropy of translation), we also have the rotation and vibration within the structure of each molecule. The more ways in which a molecule can dissipate its energy, the greater its entropy.