An Outline of Energy Metabolism in Man by Gordon L. Atkins

By Gordon L. Atkins

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This is a mechanism whereby the liver converts one type of fuel into another type that can be used more easily by some other organ. For example, nervous tissue cannot use free fatty acids but can use ketone bodies during prolonged fasting. 37 synthesis from glucose exogenous free fatty acids free fatty acids ι triacylglycerols protein phospholipid VLDL liver t blood VLDL (lipoprotein) Fig. 5a Synthesis and secretion of lipoprotein by the liver lipoprotein remnants of lipoprotein blood lipoprotein lipase endothelial cells free fatty acids I adipocytes triacyl glycerols Fig.

The reactions for synthesis are partly in the cytoplasm and partly in the endoplasmic reticulum whereas those for degradation are solely in the cytoplasm. Synthesis uses acyl coenzyme A and glycerol phosphate from glycolysis. Breakdown yields free fatty acids and free glycerol. As for most materials, the two pathways are therefore quite distinct. The two important organs for the synthesis and degradation of triacylglycerols are adipose tissue and liver. Synthesis also occurs in the intestines during the absorption of fat.

Sometimes one fuel is converted to another first. For example, glucose is often changed into free fatty acids then stored as triacylglycerols. In fact, the major storage form for excess energy is the triacylglycerols. The reactions for synthesis are partly in the cytoplasm and partly in the endoplasmic reticulum whereas those for degradation are solely in the cytoplasm. Synthesis uses acyl coenzyme A and glycerol phosphate from glycolysis. Breakdown yields free fatty acids and free glycerol. As for most materials, the two pathways are therefore quite distinct.

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