Bacteria and Viruses (The Lucent Library of Science and by Peggy Thomas

By Peggy Thomas

They're answerable for a few of the deadliest ailments, but they play a necessary function in preserving existence on the earth. In Bacteria and Viruses, find out about the scientists who came upon them, how we struggle the dangerous ones, and the way useful microbes can be utilized to enhance our lives.

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The electrons are absorbed or scattered by the cell’s parts and form an image on an electrosensitive photographic plate. This technique allows the microscope to magnify an image up to 1 million times. For the first time scientists could see the shape of viruses. But the electron microscope still did not reveal what a virus was made of or how it was constructed. That breakthrough came in 1932, when chemist Wendell Stanley used a technique called X-ray crystallography to transform the tobacco mosaic virus into a crystal.

It can be passed from person to person long before any signs of illness appear. HIV can spread through having contact with blood and other bodily fluids from an infected person, engaging in sexual activity with an infected person, sharing a contaminated hypodermic needle, and 63 64 Bacteria and Viruses An electron micrograph shows a T cell infected with the HIV virus. The virus can lie dormant in the human body for years before it develops into AIDS. receiving a blood transfusion. It may also be passed from an infected mother to her fetus during pregnancy.

S. surgeon general William H. Steward even declared before Congress in 1969 that he was ready to “close the book” 17 on infectious disease. The development of antibiotics was put on the back burner. But as quickly as man could manufacture antibiotics and vaccines, bacteria and viruses were faster to develop resistance to the drugs. In an interview with Newsweek, Dr. Richard Wenzel of the University of Iowa said, “Ever since 1928, when Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin, man and microbe have been in a footrace.

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