# Before the Snap Teacher's Resource Guide by Saddleback Educational Publishing

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N\{i} Σj ) = ∅. (1) Given such a composable set of agents, a multi-agent system (MAS) is modelled as a special kind of component automaton called a team automaton [34]. A state q of the team automaton is a tuple of the possible states of the agents, Qi . We let qj , for j ∈ 0 . n, denote the j th element of the tuple q. n Definition 3. A MAS comprising agents A0 , . . n – Σint = – Σout = Qi . Ii . n Σi,int . n – Σinp = ( Σi,out . n Σi,inp ) \ Σout . – δ ⊆ Q × Σ × Q such that • for all (q, a, q ) ∈ δ, there exists a j ∈ 0 .

We handle the hot-escapable states by enforcing fairness: we make sure that if a transition is enabled inﬁnitely often, it will eventually be traversed. This type of fairness can be enforced using probabilistic wait-block patches, which we also call liveness patches. Through their use we can ensure that any liveness violations are eﬀectively eliminated. In the remainder of the section we discuss the liveness patching process more thoroughly. 1 Classifying Hot States The ﬁrst step in our repair algorithm is partitioning the hot states in the state graph into the two types mentioned.

Coordinating and visualizing independent behaviors in Erlang. W. au African Institute for Mathematical Sciences (AIMS), Cape Town, South Africa 3 Department of Mathematical Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa Abstract. Although adaptivity is a central feature of agents and multiagent systems (MAS), there is no precise deﬁnition of it in the literature. What does it mean for an agent or for a MAS to be adaptive? How can we reason about and measure the ability of agents and MAS to adapt?