By Mark T. DeMeuse
Biaxial (having axes) stretching of movie is used for quite a number functions and is the first production approach through which items are produced for the foodstuff packaging undefined. Biaxial stretching of movie: ideas and purposes presents an outline of the producing methods and diversity of purposes for biaxially stretched films.
Part one stories the basic ideas of biaxial stretching. After an introductory bankruptcy which defines phrases, chapters talk about gear layout and standards, laboratory reviews, biaxial movie buildings and standard business procedures for the biaxial orientation of flicks. extra themes contain publish construction processing of biaxially stretched motion pictures, the stress-strain behaviour of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and educational investigations of biaxially stretched movies. half investigates the purposes of biaxial movies together with clean lower produce, snack packaging and product labelling. a last bankruptcy investigates capability destiny developments for biaxially orientated movies and orienting lines.
Biaxial stretching of movie: rules and functions is a worthwhile reference device for a wide spectrum of readers, starting from polymer and fibre engineers to electric engineers. it's going to even be appropriate for execs within the meals packaging and paper industries.
- A invaluable reference device for polymer and fibre engineers, electric engineers and pros within the nutrition packaging and paper industries
- Provides a entire assessment of the producing procedures of biaxially stretched movies and features a dialogue in their destiny applications
- Places emphasis at the expertise in addition to the different sorts of polymers used
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Extra resources for Biaxial Stretching of Film. Principles and Applications
8 Owing to the size of this industry, there has been considerable interest in understanding the details of the process leading to the production of film. Kim9 concluded that the crystalline state of the polypropylene controls the stretching features of the products as measured in laboratory evaluations. Further, he found that the ability to orient film becomes easier with increasing stretching temperature and/or with an decreased density of the cast sheet. Since the density of the cast polymer sheet is directly related to the crystallinity level,10 this result implies that sheets with higher crystallinity are more difficult to orient.
Long stretcher to produce biaxially oriented films based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) and copolymers containing PET or PEN moieties. They compared data for materials produced with different biaxial draw ratios. Their main interest was in permeability, diffusion and solubility coefficients. They discovered that the diffusivity of gas molecules is influenced not only by the void size and content, but also by the effects of crystallinity on the movement of the gas through the polymer.
Draw ratios are typically about 3 to 4 in both the machine (MD) and transverse (TD) directions. Once the drawing operation is complete, the film is heat-set under tension in the stretching oven at temperatures which are typically above 200 °C. The orientation is responsible for the high strength and stiffness of oriented PET film, which has a typical modulus of about 4 GPa. Also, due to the orientation, many crystal nuclei are formed that remain smaller than the wavelength of visible light. As a result, BOPET film has excellent clarity.