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Monoclea (Fig. 4C) and Monosolenium, which are best interpreted as complex thalloid plants that have lost their air chambers, have androecial organizations comparable to those of other complex thalloid taxa. 21 22 B. Crandall-Stotler and others Most simple thalloid liverworts are anacrogynous, having their archegonia and perichaetial scales aggregated on small receptacles posterior to the thallus apex along the dorsal surface of the midrib. In Pellia most species are anacrogynous, but in Pellia epiphylla the gynoecium and subsequently formed sporophyte terminate the growth of the original thallus module (Fig.

Among leafy forms, only Haplomitrium possesses a central strand of elongate, hydrolyzed ‘‘conducting’’ cells; these are smaller in diameter than the surrounding cells of the cortex, thin-walled, and minutely perforate. Note that in the absence of substantial anatomical differentiation the outer zone of shorter stem cells is often referred to as a cortex and the inner zone of more elongated cells as a medulla. For consistency with other plant groups, however, we suggest that the terms epidermis, cortex, and central strand be applied to hepatics, as defined in Magill (1990).

In the Jungermanniidae, the perianth in turn is basally ensheathed by enlarged bracts and bracteoles. , Isotachis, Marsupella, and Nardia, an additional structure, referred to as a stem-perigynium, essentially replaces the perianth (Fig. 7F). A stem-perigynium is derived from a peripheral ring of meristematic cells to the outside of the archegonial cluster and just below the perichaetium. It can superficially resemble a perianth, but actually is a multistratose, fleshy sheath of axis origin that bears the bracts on its surface and the reduced perianth at its apex.

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