Byzantium and the Early Islamic Conquests by Walter E. Kaegi

By Walter E. Kaegi

It is a research of the way and why the Byzantine empire misplaced a lot of its most useful provinces to Islamic conquerors within the 7th century, provinces that integrated Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia and Armenia. It investigates stipulations at the eve of these conquests, errors in Byzantine coverage towards the Muslims, the process the army campaigns, and the matter of neighborhood respectable and civilian collaboration with the Muslims. It additionally seeks to give an explanation for how after a few negative losses the Byzantine govt accomplished a few highbrow clarification of its failures and started the complicated means of remodeling and adapting its financial and army associations and political controls so that it will hinder extra disintegration.

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Anerkennung und Integration 3 0 - 2 , 35, and 73-6. Assignment of the defense of the Barbalissos (medieval Balis region in northern Syria) to two brothers: Baladhurl 150; Ramsay MacMullen, Corruption and the Decline of Rome 122-97, on "privatization" of military defenses and the negative consequences. Syria: Baladhurl 125, 131. Mesopotamia: BaladhurT 125, 152, 173, 178. Miracula, Acta M . Anastasii Persae c. 13 (25 Usener). Cf. Excavations at Nessana, vol. Ill, no. 79, line 59, on p. 230. 39 But the harbinger of change and shakeup was the general reassessment of land by the sakellarios Philagrios immediately before Heraclius died in 641.

Cubicularius: Ibn 'Asakir 1:476 Munajjid; al-'Usfurl 1: 87; al-Tabarl i 2125, 2126. Zacos/Veglery, BLS contains a Bocdvns w h o is cubicularius (no. 566) and another (no. 1086) imperial chartoularios. But another seventh-century Baanes has the title on a seal (no. ). There is no conclusive identification here. It may be tempting to identify one of these seventh-century seals with the Vahan who commanded at Yarmuk, but that identification cannot be confirmed. Drungarius: al-Tabarl i 2108, 2127. , A M 6146 (345-6 De Boor).

The Byzantine Empire in an era of change 27 Asia, to enforce the earlier terms agreed with the successor of Chosroes II, Kawadh-Siroes. In March 630 Heraclius personally accompanied the restoration to Jerusalem of what he and contemporaries believed to have been the relics of the cross that the Persians had removed from Jerusalem in 614. But many other problems remained. Many shattered provinces needed help in reconstruction. The needs were great and the financial resources were limited. Of great importance were troubling ecclesiastical problems, especially the divisive problems of Christology and ecclesiology, which had long wracked Syria, Egypt, and Armenia.

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