By H. Rasmussen, W. Zawalich, I. Kojima (auth.), Professor Dr. Dieter Marmé (eds.)
The objective of the current quantity is to provide a finished and updated 2 survey of the character and position of calcium ions (Ca +) within the legislation of cel 2 lular functionality. considering the fact that Ca + has won in curiosity during the last years as a cel lular messenger in sign transduction, and because the invention of its mobile receptor protein, calmodulin, has helped in knowing its mode of motion in molecular phrases, we felt that an interdisciplinary number of subject matters from the calcium box may supply an outstanding resource of data for all these in terested in calcium-mediated body structure. the amount starts with an summary at the synarchic nature of the 2 2 mobile messengers, cyclic AMP and Ca +. the following 3 chapters take care of 2 a number of the delivery mechanisms for Ca +. The biochemistry and molecular biology of calmodulin, in addition to the mobile localization of calmodulin and calmodulin-binding proteins, are reviewed. Calcium rules of soft muscle contraction introduces the pharmacology of calcium antagonists.
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Additional resources for Calcium and Cell Physiology
A) Rega and Garrahan (1978) presented the following experiment (see Fig. 3A). The protein was phosphorylated in the presence of Ca2+ , then reaction I (Fig. 2) was stopped by addition ofEGTA. The phosphoprotein decayed rapidly when ATP (at high concentration) and Mg2+ were added (reaction II + III), but did not with added ATP alone or Mg2 + alone (Fig. 3A). In a second experiment (Fig. 3B) Mg2+ was added during the last 5 s of phosphorylation and then Ca2+ and Mg2+ were removed by 20 mM CDTA. In this case addition of ATP was sufficient to decompose the phosphoprotein rapidly.
The activator is of course calmodulin and the inhibitory agent is another peptide; the biphasic action of crude hemolysate rules out that the inhibitor is competitive with or binds to calmodulin. It has been isolated (Lee and Au 1981). Its physiological role is obscure, but it might be responsible for the low apparent Ca 2 + affmity observed in intact red cells (Feirreira and Lew 1976). 10 Lipid Requirement It has been shown that the functioning of the calmodulin replete system requires the presence of glycerophospholipids in the inner leaflet of the membrane (Roelofsen 1981; Roelofsen and Schatzmann 1977).
No oxalate. • with ATP; 0 without ATP. At 5 min EGTA (2 mM) was added. The drop in vesicular Ca 2 + shows that the vesicles were quite leaky to Ca 2 +. Addition of I/LM A 23187 at 15 min shows that Ca 2 + was accumulated into the vesicular water space against a considerable gradient. Without ATP there was no accumulation of Ca 2 +. _- 150 ",0 ",'" >0. 0- "'E "' 100 "V; ...... - 0 E + N C 50 o~ U ! l!. 0. 0 '" '" 00. 0 \. =0.. 0- '" E '0 ....... :'" 0'" + N E '<. o~ .. • u 5 10 TIME 15 (min) transported by the system.