Concise Encyclopedia of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology by Thomas A Scott, E. Ian Mercer

By Thomas A Scott, E. Ian Mercer

Includes a few 4,500 entries and approximately 1,000 figures, formulation, and tables. Entries comprise citations of contemporary literature. This 3rd variation bargains many new entries reflecting advances within the knowing of molecular and phone biology, metabolic pathways, and the selection of macromolecular st

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In salivary glands and pancreas of omnivores; γ-Α. in liver) and plants, whereas ß-A. are found only in plant seeds. Mammalian a - A . are dependent on chloride. Animal and plant a - A . contain calcium. The a - A . of Bacillus subtilis contains zinc. Plant ß-A. are formed as insoluble zymogens during seed maturation. α-Amylase test: see Gibberellins. 33): an endoglucosidase which cleaves the 1—>6 glycosidic bonds at the branching points of glycogen and amylopectin. In mammals and yeast it is associated with a glycosyl transferase which removes all the glucose residues up to the 1—>6 bond.

In animals N H 3 is eliminated by detoxification reactions (see A m m o n i a detoxification), while in plants and bacteria it is assimilated for the synthesis of nitrogenous compounds. The concentration of a m m o n i u m ions in body fluids and all living cells is therefore relatively low. Metabolism. N H 3 is the product of nitrate reduction, biological nitrogen fixation, deamination of amin o acids, and various catabolic pathways, e. g. oxidative purine degradation and reductive pyrimidine degradation.

Transfer of the intact amidine group of arginine has been demonstrated by double labeling with C14 and N15. An A. from Streptomycesgriseus and S. baikiniensis is involved in the biosynthesis of streptidine. Amiloride: a drug which inhibits the influx of Na+ into cells. It was discovered as a natriuretic agent which increases Na+ excretion but does not affect K+ excretion [Baer et al. J. Pharmacol Exp. Ther. 157 (1967) 472]. Animal cells have 2 systems for Na+ transport. The Na+/K+ ATPase (inhibited by ouabain) exports Na+ and imports K+, each against its concentration gradient.

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