Crusade, Commerce and Culture by Aziz S. Atiya

By Aziz S. Atiya

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In 622 he disembarked fight on the shores of the gulf of Alexandretta at Issos, in the province of Cilicia or Lesser Armenia just south of the Taurus mountains, and forced upon the Persian besiegers of his forces from Asia Minor. Again, while aided a by Byzantine patrician named Bonus, orSergius, ganized the heroic defense of Constantinople against the Avar hordes, Heraclius launched another campaign against the his capital a complete retreat Persians in 623. This time, with surprising ingenuity, he bewildered his adversary by taking sail on the Black Sea to Trebizond, whence he sallied into Greater Armenia and Azerbaijan and harassed the heedless Khosroes in his royal nest at Ganzak.

Cor- CHAPTER TWO Crusade: The Frankish Solution of the Eastern Question OLD CONCEPTS AND NEW IDEAS HISTORICAL WRITING * in the field of the Crusade has been of fundamental changes slowly but steadily undergoing a series a of in the course of the last quarter century, and recent works outlook on some of its a new have on the subject displayed these is the probprincipal phases. Most prominent among lem of the chronology of the Age of the Crusade. There are two schools of thought about the beginning and the end of the The foregoing chapter has revealed that the Crusading Age.

Those who visit the ruins of the Basilica of St. Simeon near Aleppo in northern Syria will find the column on top of which the holy man lived for nearly thirty years about the middle of the fifth century, once more than ninety Stylites now a stump, the rest carried away by relic hunters. pilgrim traffic was momentarily arrested during the feet high, The Muslim invasion; but as soon as the belligerents laid their arms, the flow of pilgrimage down was resumed, even in the course of the eighth century.

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