Culture Evolves (Philosophical Transactions of the Royal by Andrew Whiten, Robert A. Hinde, Christopher B. Stringer,

By Andrew Whiten, Robert A. Hinde, Christopher B. Stringer, Kevin N. Laland (Editors)

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Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 99, 4436–4441. 062041299) 83 Whiten, A. & van Schaik, C. P. 2007 The evolution of animal ‘cultures’ and social intelligence. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 362, 603 –620. , Laland, K. & Sjostrand, J. 2010 One cultural parent makes no culture. Anim. Behav. 79, 1353–1362. anbehav. 009) 85 Tomasello, M. 1994 Chimpanzee cultures (ed. R. ), pp. 301 –317. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 86 Laland, K. , Odling-Smee, F. J. & Myles, S. 2010 How culture has shaped the human genome: bringing genetics and the human sciences together.

Demonstrators were initially trained to feed by swimming into horizontal tubes to collect food held at the far end. Over a period of several exposures these tubes were rotated to vertical. This was a foraging task that the fish could not solve by themselves without training; while trained fish reliably fed from these tubes, no naive fish presented with a vertical tube learned to feed from it on its own. When placed in groups with experienced demonstrators however, naive fish readily learned to feed from the vertical tubes, establishing the social transmission of a novel feeding behaviour.

Because of the interaction, separate ANOVAs were conducted on each species and we included the following potentially confounding variables: treatment, year, date of filming, sex, age (first year or older), brood size, altitude, longitude and latitude of nest site. Forward stepwise selection was used, and variables, and interactions between these, were included only if significant at the 5 per cent level. 045). No second-order interactions were significant. org on July 7, 2011 972 T. Slagsvold & K.

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