By T. Flynn

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Though ice is available, the butcher a few doors down the street still allows his meat to hang unrefrigerated in the open air. Cornwall, England, constructed engines in which expanding air was used to convert water to ice. In 1846, an American, John Dutton, obtained a patent for making ice by the expansion of air. The real development of the cold air machine, however, began with the one developed by John Gorrie of Florida and patented in England in 1850 and in the United States in 1851. Later, we shall see how Gorrie’s machine evolved into true cryogenics, not merely ice production.

69 R. 4140 L. 05 cu ft. 921 in. 696 psia. 575 W (IT). 1 cal ¼ 41833 J (IT). 000657 cal=g. than do monatomic molecules. As a ﬁrst approximation, CV increases by R for each additional atom in the molecule. This is a consequence of the principle of equipartion of energy: the value of CV increases by (1=2)R for each additional mode by which energy can be soaked up (three translational modes plus one rotational and one vibrational per bond formed). This holds well for diatomic molecules [CV ¼ (5=2)R, CP ¼ (7=2)R], but as more atoms are added it does not work so well.

New thermodynamic functions such as H, G, and A cannot in general be deﬁned by the random combination of variables. As a minimum, dimensional consistency is required. Instead, a standard mathematical method exists for the systematic deﬁnition of the desired functions; this is the Legendre transformation. The functions for G, H, and A are in fact Legendre transformations of the fundamental property relation of a closed PVT system, dU ¼ TdS À PdV. A consequence of the Legendre transformation is that the resulting expressions for G, H, and A are exact differential equations with the following special property: If z ¼ f(x,y) and dz ¼ Mdx þ Ndy, then the property of exactness is that @M @N ¼ @y x @x y Applying this property of exact differential equations to the four equations above yields the following Maxwell relations: @T @P ¼À ð2:14Þ @V S @S V @T @V ¼ ð2:15Þ @P S @S P @S @V ¼À ð2:16Þ @P T @T P @S @P ¼ ð2:17Þ @V T @T V The last two are among the most useful, because they relate entropy changes to an equation of state.