Developmental Biology of the Sea Urchin Embryo by Giovanni Giudice

By Giovanni Giudice

Developmental Biology of the ocean Urchin Embryo

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Morphogenesis of Embryos 37 Cytochemical experiments (Child, 1936) have suggested the existence of a "reduction gradient" from the animal to the vegetal pole. Holter and Lindahl (1940) by means of the Cartesian diver, have not detected, however, any respiratory difference between isolated animal and vegetal halves. Nor can any significant correlation be found between inhibitors of the respiratory metabolism and deviation of morphogenesis toward the animal or vegetal differentiation. More recently, the rate of oxygen consumption of animal and vegetal halves has been reinvestigated by De Vincentiis et al.

The techniques by which the structure of the sea urchin egg has been studied have made use of the staining properties of the cell organelles and of the stratification of the latter after centrifuging the entire egg. The two techniques have very often been combined. The genus Arbacia is probably the most studied one from the point of view of centrifugation experiments (Sanzo, 1904; Lyon, 1906; Morgan, 1909; Ε. B. Harvey, 1932, 1933a,b, 1934, 1935a,b,c, 1936, 1938, 1940a,b,c, 1941, 1943, 1945, 1946, 1949, 1951, 1956a; Harvey and Hollaender, 1937; Harvey and Lavin, 1944, 1951).

Implantation of four micromeres b e t w e e n anx and an2 of a 32-cell stage. ) Β. Morphogenesis of Embryos 29 By microsurgical experiments, Hörstadius has made an accurate quantitation of the distribution of these properties along the egg axis. 11 demonstrates the effect of the implantation of different parts of a vegetal half on the developmental fate of an animal half. It appears that the animal properties of the animal half of the egg (which, if isolated, would develop into the usual hyperciliated blastula) are the more balanced the closer to the vegetal pole is the origin of the implanted blastomeres.

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