Diabetic Eye Disease: An Illustrated Guide to Diagnosis and by Erna E. Kritzinger MSc, FRCS, MRCP, Kenneth G. Taylor MD,

By Erna E. Kritzinger MSc, FRCS, MRCP, Kenneth G. Taylor MD, MRCP (auth.)

The most typical reason for blindness in younger and middle-aged humans within the Western international is diabetes mellitus. even though the mechanism underlying diabetic retinopathy continues to be now not understood, the know-how to lessen its growth exists, supplied therapy is given on the applicable time. medical professionals taking good care of sufferers with diabetes might be conversant in all elements of diabetic retinopathy in addition to the opposite ocular issues of diabetes. additionally they desire a uncomplicated wisdom of the distinctive concepts utilized in the analysis and therapy of diabetic eye disorder (fundus fluorescein angiography, retinal photocoagulation, vitrectomy) and to appreciate how those tactics have an effect on the diabetic sufferer by way of dilemma of actions and break day paintings. to make sure the best use of ophthalmic providers a transparent plan of referral to ophthalmologists is needed. those are the options on which this consultant relies, compiled through an ophthalmologist thinking about the therapy of diabetic eye affliction and a doctor with a distinct curiosity in diabetes. as well as medical professionals excited about the administration of diabetic sufferers, this advisor can be of price to ophthalmic opticians, clinical scholars and nurses as a self-instruction guide. ' 7 1 exam of the attention trying out visible acuity utilizing the ophthalmoscope the traditional fundus The irregular fundus Recording the findings nine trying out visible ACUITY approach try out one eye at a time. try far-off visible acuity. right the refractive errors if the visible acuity is worse than 6/6.

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Extra info for Diabetic Eye Disease: An Illustrated Guide to Diagnosis and Management

Example text

The patient is usually asymptomatic until the final stages when 'tunnel' vision occurs. Action Urgent referral to an ophthalmologist for assessment of intraocular pressure and visual field. 58 CUPPING OF THE OPTIC DISC (Chronic glaucoma) Figure 43 Figure 44 Normal cupping of the optic disc. Glaucomatous cupping of the optic disc. 59 LIPAEMIA RETINALIS This condition occurs with marked hypertriglyceridaemia which may be a feature of severely uncontrolled diabetes. The hypertriglyceridaemia and the fundus abnormalities are reversible usually with control of the diabetes.

Figure 38 Third nerve palsy with ptosis affecting the left eye. (Figures 37 and 38 courtesy Orthoptic Department, Birmingham and Midland Eye Hospital) 51 3 Other Ocular Abnormalities Sometimes Associated with Diabetes Retinal vein occlusion Asteroid hyalosis Cupping of the optic disc due to chronic glaucoma Lipaemia retinalis Xanthelasmata and corneal arcus 53 RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION Diabetes mellitus may be associated with retinal vein occlusion, but other predisposing conditions to be considered are hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and hyperviscosity of the blood.

46 RUBEOSIS OF THE IRIS Figure 33 There are new vessels on the anterior surface of the iris, adjacent to the pupillary margin . Figure 34 Chronic neovascular glaucoma with new vessels radiating over the anterior surface ofthe iris. There is a mature cataract. Associated chronic iritis has resulted in nodular exudate on the iris and keratic precipitates on the inner surface of the cornea (best visible in the lower half of the cornea). 47 CATARACT Cataracts are common in diabetics, and senile cataract occurs at an earlier age than in non-diabetics.

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