By Erik S. Herron (auth.)
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Extra info for Elections and Democracy after Communism?
Commissions determine who can vote and run for office and often adjudicate procedural complaints along with the courts. If the administration and adjudication process is perceived to be biased or unfair, the number of voters, candidates, and parties willing to participate may decline. Because they cover a wide range of rights and responsibilities, the rules governing elections may be codified across several documents: the constitution; statutes governing elections, referendums, electoral commissions, courts, media, and public organizations or parties; as well as regulations issued by the executive branch or other administrative agencies.
6 The next section outlines the institutional inheritance from the Soviet period, noting where rules persisted and were abandoned. El ec tio n Rul es in Po st-Sovi et States Founding Election Rules Immediately following the USSR’s dissolution, the newly independent states faced pressure to advance along four dimensions of democratic transition: political reform, economic reform, establishing a functioning state apparatus, and developing a national identity associated with the new realities of the post-Soviet era (Kuzio 2001).
1996 Mar. 6, 1994 Russia Dec. 12, 1993 Dec. 17, 1995 Dec. 19, 1999 Dec. 7, 2003 Dec. 2, 2007 Jun. 16/Jul. 3, 1996 Mar. 26, 2000 Mar. 14, 2004 Mar. 2, 2008 Apr. 25, 1993 Dec. 12, 1993 Tajikistan Feb. 26/Mar. 12, 1995 Feb. 27/Mar. 12, 2000 Feb. 27/Mar. 13, 2005 Nov. 6, 1994 Nov. 6, 1999 Nov. 6, 2006 Nov. 6, 1994 Sep. 26, 1999 Jun. 22, 2003 Turkmenistan Dec. 6, 1992 (Khalk Maslikhaty) Dec. 11, 1994/ Jan. 8, 1995 Dec. 12, 1999 Apr. 6, 2003 (Khalk Maslikhaty) Dec. 19, 2004 Dec. 9, 2007 (Khalk Maslikhaty) Dec.