By Joshua Jones, John Roth, Wesley Salandro, Cristina Bunget, Laine Mears
Maximizing reader insights into the newest study findings and purposes of Electrically-Assisted Forming (EAF) – wherein metals are shaped less than an electrical present box – this ebook explains how any such strategy produces instant superior formability of metals past the level of thermal softening, and permits metals to be shaped to larger elongation with decrease mechanical power in addition to taking into consideration light-weight brittle metals similar to magnesium and titanium to be shaped with no exterior heating or annealing, permitting the more beneficial use of those light-weight metals in design.
Including case stories that illustrate and help the theoretical content material and real-world functions of the thoughts mentioned, this e-book additionally serves to counterpoint readers knowing of the underlying theories that impact electro-plastic behaviour.
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Additional resources for Electrically Assisted Forming
Traditional enhancements include heating the metal to a significant fraction of its absolute melting temperature to improve formability, thermally annealing material to “reset” its properties and allow further forming, and alloying to allow improved formability while maintaining desired properties in the end product. In this work, we examine the Electrically Assisted Forming (EAF) process, whereby electric current is passed through a part during forming. The added electrical energy works to lower the flow stress, to improve the achievable elongation, and to relieve residual stress in situ, and at much higher rates-of-change of material properties than can be achieved with thermal energy.
The percent cold work within a metal generally determines the dislocation density within that metal. As the dislocation density is increased, there are more dislocation pile-ups and the achievable deformation can become limited. It is theorized that the flowing electrons directly affect the dislocations within the metal’s lattice. , a current density where significant formability improvements due to the applied electrical power are observed) . 1 shows several lightweight material properties (crystalline structure and resistivity), along with the electrical thresholds, which were experimentally determined using data from works by Perkins et al.
2] examined electricity’s effect on group 1A salts (NaCl), determining that an applied electric current significantly affected the material’s ductility, flow stress, and yield strength. Later, Nabarro  discussed electricity’s effect on metals as part of his book in 1967. In 1969, Troitskii et al.  studied how electrons influence dislocation motion and reproduction in different alloys of zinc, tin, lead, and indium, concluding that pulsed electricity could lower the flow stress within the materials.