Engineering Properties and Applications of Lead Alloys by Sivaraman Guruswamy

By Sivaraman Guruswamy

Concentrating on the makes use of of lead in natural or alloy shape for engineering purposes, this article provides facts at the actual, mechanical, corrosive, accoustic, damping and nuclear houses of lead and lead alloys. It organizes info in accordance with alloy kind in tables, graphs and textual content, and examines the processing of commercially on hand lead items, together with casting, rolling, extrusion, machining, welding and mechanical becoming a member of suggestions.

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5. Pb-Ca Alloys Lead-calcium and Pb-Ca-Sn alloys are of interest in pipe, wire, cable sheathing, anodes, storage battery grid, chemical-handling equipment, radiation shielding, and other applications. Ca is also used as an important secondary additive in hardened lead bearing metals. A peritectic reaction is observed on the lead-rich side in the Pb-Ca system at 3283°C (Figure 6) [2,53,71]. %) Pb Bi Pb Figure 5 Pb-Bi phase diagram [2,53,66]. % Ca. % at room temperature. 07% Pb,Ca precipitates on solidification.

Its outstanding electrochemical behavior makes uable in battery applications. Its density and low stiffness makes it attractive as an efficient sound-barrier material, whereas its ductility and IOW stiffness makes it valuable in seismic protection. Its resistance in manychemical environments has made it valuable in the chemical industry. An attempt is made here to present comprehensive information on different aspects of lead and lead alloys used in the above-mentioned and other engineering appli- m, Introduction 21 Table 6 Physical Properties of Lead ~ Property Ref.

2 kg/l20 S) in 6 h (Figure 7). cm. % [76]. % Ca. % Ca alloys show the maximum hardness. Secondary additions of other alkali and alkali earth metals Li, Ba, and Na increase the hardness. The addition of tin to a Pb-Ca-Sn alloy increases the hardness, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and stress rupture properties. Additions of Sb and Bi decrease the hardness as theyform intermetallic compounds with Ca and segregate from the melt. Because of the presence of the finely distributed precipitate phase, the age-hardened alloys show a very high resistance to recrystallization after room-temperature working.

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