By Ole Elgström
The european coverage strategy relies on negotiations as a style of achieving agreements on, and enforcing, universal guidelines. the european negotiations vary from conventional overseas negotiations in different respects and this publication provides an in depth research of the procedures whereas studying their distinguishing features.
The authors discover the range of negotiation techniques, the continuity and institutionalization of negotiation techniques in addition to the involvement of a number of actors along with governments, frequently associated in casual networks. Going past the typical differences according to issue-areas or the european as negotiation enviornment in place of negotiating actor externally, the authors discover the impression of alternative levels within the coverage approach and the character of the exterior negotiating associate.
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Extra info for European Union Negotiations: Processes, Networks and Institutions
Wallace, W. (1996) ‘Government without Statehood: The Unstable Equilibrium’, in H. Wallace and W. Wallace (eds) Policy-Making in the European Union, Oxford: Oxford University Press. 28 Christer Jönsson and Maria Strömvik Wessels, W. ’, in H. Wallace and A. R. Young (eds) Participation and Policy-Making in the European Union, Oxford: Clarendon Press. Young, O. R. (1994) International Governance: Protecting the Environment in a Stateless Society, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Young, O. R.
Analytically, two stages exist: the phases of ‘legalization’ and ‘implementation’. In both these stages, I argue, the new norm usually encounters resistance. Therefore, negotiations are normal and crucial elements in both phases. Resistance against ‘unobjectionable’ norms exists for two main reasons. First, many different cultures and ideologies co-exist in a broad political context (like the European Union). The new norm is normally more highly prioritized in some of these than in others. Some states are ‘vanguards’, others are ‘laggards’.
Protests against discrimination of homosexuals have spread to demands for equal rights as Consolidating ‘unobjectionable’ norms 33 regards marriage and adoption. External events often act as precipitants in the diffusion and consolidation of norms. In the environmental arena, we have seen how cases of river pollution and oil tanker accidents have hastened the ‘greening’ of the European Union, as have debates about holes in the ozone layer and climate change (cf. Kronsell 1997: 106). Norm spread and negotiation When a general norm (for example, ‘the principle of sustainable development should inform all decision making’ or ‘concern for gender should be integrated into policy making across all policy sectors’) has been politically accepted, it still has to be transformed into legal texts and, finally, implemented in terms of concrete policy.