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Extra resources for Eurotyp: Typology of Languages in Europe, Volume 6: Tense and Aspect in the Languages of Europe
Thus, the formula +PAST (+INTRA) x [+t] denotes 'intraterminality-in-past operating on an actional phrase of a transformative phase structure'. Several European languages make systematic use of special modes of action expressing phase structure properties. 5). Russian-type perfectives will be dealt with as combined +AD- and +Tmarkers. 7. Core systems, peripheries, preaspectuals The systems of viewpoint operators hold central positions in the grammars of European languages. However, formal elements found in the cores frequently also take a productive part in more or less comprehensive peripheral systems of periphrastic constructions.
Many mark +PAST rather strictly, which means a high degree of grammaticalization in the sense of generalization. ) Less temporalized systems, particularly at historically earlier stages of development, dispense with marking intra- and postterminals for +PAST. , Turkish öliiyor instead of ölüyordu 'was dying' or ölmiis instead of ölmüstü 'had died'. This is, for example, the case in those Slavic languages which have preserved a pluperfect (Maslov 1980: 54,58-59). There are also reduced systems in which one single item represents the past and pre-past strata.
I do not assume a "semantic domain of aspectuality" that receives either lexical or grammatical expression. The main function of viewpoint operators is not to select phases present in the meanings of lexemes. The interpretation of an aspectually characterized predication involves different elements of taxis and is also dependent on the contribution of contextual elements such as different time adverbials. A further characterization common to European languages is temporal determination by means of grammatical tenses.