Evolutionary Biology of Primitive Fishes by Carl Gans (auth.), R. E. Foreman, A. Gorbman, J. M. Dodd, R.

By Carl Gans (auth.), R. E. Foreman, A. Gorbman, J. M. Dodd, R. Olsson (eds.)

What, accurately, is a primitive fish? so much biologists could agree that the residing cyclostomes, selachians, crossopterygians, and so on. can't be thought of actually primitive. although, they and the fossil checklist have served to supply the data which kinds the foundation for hypothesis in regards to the nature of the unique vertebrates. This symposium of biologists from quite a few disciplines was once referred to as jointly to create jointly, from the easiest on hand present facts, an image of the possible line of evolution of the prototype primitive fishes. The symposium was once designed to stick with one who came about in Stockholm in 1967, convened for the same goal, with in regards to the comparable variety of individuals. it's a topic of curiosity that nearly the complete 1967 symposium (Nobel Symposium four) dealt in basic terms with the challenging tissues, even if fossil or smooth. In charting the process the current symposium it used to be felt that the intervening years have produced various traces of latest facts which may be hired within the comparable approach navigator determines his place. every one box, be it grownup morphology, geology, ecology, biochemistry, improvement or body structure, generates proof that may be extrapolated backward from current vertebrate types and ahead from invertebrate varieties. If the intersect of basically traces of proof produces a navigational "fix" of really low reliability, then an intersect, even though unfocussed, of a number of instructions from extra a number of disciplines may well offer a greater place from which to pass judgement on early vertebrate history.

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In fact, the "ganoin" in the dermal bones, in the scales and in the fin spines of Polypterus, differs from the ganoin of paleonisciforms. FACTS AND THOUGHTS ON PISCINE PHYLOGENY 47 Fig. 12. Pelvic girdle and endoskeleton of pelvic fin in (A) Polypterus bichir, (B) Amia calva, (C) Acipenser ruthenus, and (D) Squalus acanthias. (A, from Goodrich, 1930; B, after Sewertzoff, 1934, and Jarvik, 1980; C, after Wiedersheim, 1892, and Marinelli and Strenger, 1973; D, after Marinelli and Strenger, 1959, and Jarvik, 1965a).

The nerve supply to the second metamere basicranial muscle in osteolepiform vertebrates, with some remarks on the basic composition of the endocranium. Acta Zoo!. ) 52: 189-225. C. 1972. The nervus rarus in coelacanthiform phylogeny. Zoo!. Scripta 1: 57-68. C. 1973. Relationships of coelacanthiforms. Zoo!. J. Linn. Soc. (supp!. 1) 53: 179-205. C. 1977. A contribution to structural analysis of the head of craniate animals. Zoo!. Scripta 6: 127 -183. C. 1984a. Major anatomical steps toward craniotedness: a heterodox view based largely on embryological data.

C. BJERRING 42 STYLIZED TETRAPOD EUSTHEHOPTERON HUMAN EMBRYO HUMAN ADULT II \ III 5 I Fig. 7. Membrum Anterius. Pectoral appendicular endoskeleton (from various sources, mainly Jarvik, 1980, and Schmidt-Ehrenberg, 1942). c, capitatum (c ); c 1_c6, proximal carpals; cJ -c6, middle carpals; c -c , distal ca1pels; d, deltoi~ process; h, hamatum (c c); hu, hu&erus; I, lunatum (c1_c); Ie, lateral epicondyl~r 5 process; Is, lateral supracondylar process; ml-m5, metacarpels; me, medial epicondylar process; ms, medial supracondylar process; / -/, proximal phalanges; pl-p5, middle phalanges; p p , distal phalanges; ph, posthamatum (c ); pi, pisiforme (c6); p~, p~epollex; r, radius; ra, radials; ra, radi01us; s, scaphoideum (cJc2); t, trapezium (c ); tq, triQuetrum (c3-c5); tz, trapezoideum (c ); u, ulna; ua, uln~re (c 3 _c\ ui, ulnilla; 1-12, rays or radials; I-V, digiti I-V.

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