Fort Marion Prisoners and the Trauma of Native Education by Diane Glancy

By Diane Glancy

At the top of the Southern Plains Indian wars in 1875, the struggle division shipped seventy-two Kiowa, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Comanche, and Caddo prisoners from citadel Sill, Oklahoma, to fortress Marion in St. Augustine, Florida. those such a lot resistant local humans, often called “trouble causers,” arrived to curious, boisterous crowds desirous to see the Indian warriors they knew basically from mind's eye. Fort Marion Prisoners and the Trauma of local Education is an evocative paintings of artistic nonfiction, weaving jointly background, oral traditions, and private event to inform the tale of those Indian prisoners.

Resurrecting the voices and reports of the prisoners who underwent a painful routine of assimilation, Diane Glancy’s paintings is a component historical past, half documentation of private debts, and a look for inventive openings into the lives of the prisoners who left few in their personal documents except carvings of their cellblocks and the well-known ledger books. They realized English, arithmetic, geography, civics, and penmanship with the information that buying an identical schooling as these within the U.S. government will be their top instrument for petitioning for freedom. Glancy unearths tales of survival and an intimate realizing of the fortress Marion prisoners’ predicament.



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Augustine, Killing Buffalo, and Young Kiowas Dressed for a Ceremonial Visit. The two-room gallery was filled with the colored pencil on paper drawings. Richard Henry Pratt, who had been in charge of the Indian prisoners at Fort Marion, had typed his comments and interpretations above the drawings. ” Pratt took the actual pages on which the drawings were penciled and typed on them. I was horrified at first that someone would do that—but then I had the thought of conflation—combining variant texts—story by story—I thought of how I could combine their story with my own story of finding their story.

Sky Walker—Shuuuu, there are others riding with us—others we can’t see. Not because of the darkness—but because they were from another world. Think of them—they will hold our hearts—all of us— Ta-a-way-te slept chained to the wall with his head on his chest until he couldn’t raise his head. His neck yowled with stiffness. He cried with leg cramps. His legs slept until they tingled as if wolves ate them. Matches—When the soldiers opened the door of the rail car, they had to pull Ta-a-way-te out.

Sometimes writing was making letters that backtracked on themselves. Zotom wrote his letters—ME GO. The words were hard to learn. The letters in the words sat with others, changing the sound of those they sat by, and sometimes they were changed themselves. They were traitors, those letters. S. cavalry. July 24, 1875—Lean Bear died from starvation. He had stabbed himself halfway through the journey from Indian Territory to Florida and had been left in a hospital in Nashville. When he recovered, he was sent to Fort Marion, but he chose not to survive.

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