By J. D. Gilchrist and R. W. Douglas (Auth.)
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Extra resources for Fuels, Furnaces and Refractories
Some fortunate industrial areas have a gas grid through which all large gas users and makers are linked to their mutual benefit. Distribution is no longer under control of the "town", of course, but is the responsibility of the Area" Gas Board. Most distributed gas is now natural gas and the term town's gas is virtually obsolete. Complete gasification of coal in one stage to a high calorific value gas suitable for use as a town's gas has long been the aim of several processes. One process which has had some success even with low-grade coals is the Lurgi process which may have a place in future developments.
The important reactions which occur are: (1) The "producer gas reaction". 2C + 0 2 = 2CO + 53,200 cal (222-7 kJ). (2) The "water gas reaction". C 4- H 2 0 = CO + H 2 - 32,300 cal (135-2 kJ). Actually (1) occurs in two stages: (la) C + 0 2 = C 0 2 + 94,200 cal (394-3 kJ), (lb) C 0 2 + C = 2CO - 40,800 cal (170-8 kJ) and the bed must be deep enough that the second is almost completely accomplished. e. below about 800°C, (lb) will go too slowly and a part of the carbon will not be available as a gaseous fuel.
Reheating of gas and washing with sulphuric acid for conversion of ammonia to ammonium sulphate. At this stage the ammonia from the liquors (1) are reintroduced to the system and also sulphated. 4. Gas is oil washed to remove benzole. 5. Further oil washing for naphthalene. 6. Desulphurization with iron oxide. 7. Drying with calcium chloride or glycerine to reduce the dew point. 36 FUELS It will be obvious that this amounts to a gas-cleaning operation and all stages are necessary if the gas is to be sold for general distribution.