Gendering the Middle East: Alternative Perspectives (Review by Deniz Kandiyoti

By Deniz Kandiyoti

This article is an try and evaluation the level to which gender research has succeeded in either informing and not easy proven perspectives of tradition, society and literary construction within the heart East. members from the fields of historical past, anthropology, political sociology, diplomacy and literary feedback illustrate how a spotlight on gender may perhaps regulate our disciplinary views, our figuring out of the zone and of feminist praxis inside of it. Their explorations, starting from political discourse in Iran and inheritance options in Palestine to the Israeli-Palestinian clash, women's writing in Egypt, and methodological dilemmas in fieldwork, display how a spotlight on gender may possibly act as a strong device of social feedback.

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Additional resources for Gendering the Middle East: Alternative Perspectives (Review of Middle East Studies)

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H. jeder Text (oder Diskurs) muB diesen beiden Kriterien geniigen, und zwar immer in Abhangigkeit vom Ko- und Kontext (s. unten). In diesem Sinne sind Intentionalitat, Informativitat, Akzeptabilitat und Situationalitat kontextabhangig - wir gehen also von einem komplexen Kommunikationsmodell aus, das interaktiv und dialogisch gestaltet ist, nicht von einem einfachen Sender-Harer-Modell wie in der tradition ellen Kommunikationstheorie (Shannon/Weaver 1949). h. mit der Annahme, daB jeder Text in einen Kontext eingebettet ist und mit vielen anderen Texten synchron und diachron zusammenhangt (s.

Diese genrespezifischen Momente miissen eben falls beriicksichtigt werden (Wodak et al. ). Soziokulturell erworbene Werre und Normen sowie psychische Pradispositionen stehen hier in einem Wechselverhaltnis zur proze~haften, gesellschafdichen Produktion von Diskursen und konnen/miissen in der Analyse miterfa~t werden. 31 Aaron Cicourel (1992, 295) unterscheidet zwischen zwei Arten von Kontext: einem breiten (broad) und einem engen (local) Kontext. ; s. Teil 2, Abschnitt 4). Die Konversationsanalyse bezieht sich stark auf den Gumperzschen Begriff der "contextualization cues" (Gumperz 1982, 162): "any aspect of linguistic behavior - lexical, prosodic, phonological, and syntactic choices together with the use of particular codes, dialects or styles - may function as such, indicating those aspects of context which are relevant in interpreting what a speaker means".

So ist eine bestimmte Zeichenfolge als Gedicht durchaus akzeptabel, auch wenn Default-Erwartungen (also common sense) verletzt werden. Eine ahnliche Textdefinition wie Beaugrande/Dressler (1981) stellt van Dijk (1980, 41) auf, der grundsatzlich davon ausgeht, dag "nur die Satzsequenzen, die eine Makrostruktur besitzen, ... als Texte bezeichnet werden". Unter "Makrostruktur" versteht van Dijk, einfach gesagt, ein zugrundeliegendes Rahmenthema oder eine Rahmenproposition, die den Text zusammenfassen lagt.

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