God's Crucible: Islam and the Making of Europe, 570-1215 by David Levering Lewis

By David Levering Lewis

"A furiously complicated age; a strong narrative."—New York occasions booklet Review, Editor's selection in the beginning of the 8th century, the Arabs introduced a momentous revolution in energy, faith, and tradition to darkish a while Europe. David Levering Lewis's masterful heritage starts with the autumn of the Persian and Roman empires, by way of the increase of the prophet Muhammad and the construction of Muslim Spain. 5 centuries of engagement among the Muslim imperium and an rising Europe undefined, from the Muslim conquest of Visigoth Hispania in 711 to Latin Christendom's statement of unconditional conflict at the Caliphate in 1215. Lewis's narrative, packed with money owed of a few of the best battles in international heritage, unearths how cosmopolitan, Muslim al-Andalus flourished—a beacon of cooperation and tolerance among Islam, Judaism, and Christianity—while proto-Europe, defining itself towards Islam, made virtues out of hereditary aristocracy, non secular intolerance, perpetual struggle, and slavery. A cautionary story, God's Crucible presents a brand new interpretation of world-altering occasions whose impression continues to be as present as today's headlines. a few photographs within the e-book usually are not displayed because of permissions matters.

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The Function of Galatians 1:11– 12 and 2:19 – 20 in the Development of Paul’s Argument,” NTS 34 (1988): 411– 30.  Martyn, Galatians, 431– 66; George Howard, Paul: Crisis in Galatia – A Study in Early Christian Theology, SNTSMS 35 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 1– 19; and Robert Jewett, “The Agitators and the Galatian Congregation,” NTS 17 (1970): 198 – 212 at 205. B. G. 15 20:01 Setting the Record Straight at Galatia 23 Indeed, such is the diversity of views that even by the early 1970s, a survey by John J.


For the most part, his communities were run and administered by fellow workers. The network of communities and communications between these churches and Paul were maintained by travelling emissaries. Hence, the composition of all the Pauline letters, Galatians included, was probably also the product of a collaborative enterprise. What these observations suggest is that the process by which Paul and his team composed the letter to the Galatians was far more complex than we  E. , The Secretary in Paul’s Letters, WUNT 2/42 (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1991), 189 – 94; Richard N.

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