Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, 2nd Edition, Volume 8: by Bernhard Grzimek, Neil Schlager, American Zoo and Aquarium

By Bernhard Grzimek, Neil Schlager, American Zoo and Aquarium Association

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The list merely begins with these because they encompass the whole field of ornithology. We could continue with specialty journals such as Waterbirds, Birding, and The Journal of Raptor Research. In the United Kingdom, The Ibis, and in Germany, the Journal für Ornithologie, stand among the oldest of continuously published scientific journals. In short, our knowledge and understanding of birds is increasing at a geometric rate. This knowledge is no longer remaining within the realm of science, but is now quickly passed on to a growing birding public through the pages of such popular magazines as Birder’s World, Bird Watcher’s Digest, and WildBird in North America, and literally scores of popular bird magazines published around the world.

For example, in passerines, perhaps 5% of eggs result in adult birds and annual mortality of adults may be as high as 60%. For larger species, the rate of mortality tends to be lower. Provided that they are not too prolonged or severe, starvation, predation, disease, and other causes of Emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) adult and chick, Antarctica. (Photo by Art Wolfe. Photo Researchers, Inc. ) niche may be broad and unspecialized or narrow and highly specialized. Coexisting species tend not to overlap much in their niche requirements.

Typically, shorebirds migrate in flocks, often at night, but also during the day when crossing large ecological barriers such as oceans, gulfs, or deserts requires extremely long flights. American goldenplovers (Pluvialis dominica) make a non-stop flight from the Maritime Provinces of Canada across the western Atlantic Ocean to South America, often flying at altitudes that exceed 20,000 ft (6,000 m). In spring, the species follows a different route northward, crossing the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico and then heading north through the interior of North America.

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