By Institution of Structural Engineers
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Extra resources for Guide to the Advanced Fire Safety Engineering of Structures
1 Introduction The following four case studies, presented by Arup Fire, WSP, FEDRA and SAFE, highlight how the design methods presented within this Guide can be applied to obtain a better understanding of the structural behaviour during a fire, resulting in economical and robust buildings. 1 Artist Impression of Kings Place basement levels. The composite floors are constructed using 130mm deep composite slabs with profiled steel decking attached by shear connectors to steel beams with circular web openings.
As with all empirical equations the calculation method should only be used within the bounds of the test parameters used to derive the equation. The following points should be considered: • The coefficient of heat transfer by convection (used to calculate the net convective heat flux) will be dependent on the fire model adopted. • Emissivity values will vary depending on the fire model adopted. • The shadow factor introduced in EC316 has only been calibrated against standard fires and is only valid for ‘I’ or ‘H’ sections.
This can only be assessed by carrying out a sensitivity analysis which involves conducting the same structural analysis but increasing the number of finite elements used. • The type of finite element used to model the structure needs to be defined. The following guidance is offered: – Beam-column elements are line elements, modelling one-dimensional stress state, which include axial and flexural terms. They can be used effectively to model columns and beams. Integrating across the crosssection at several points along the element allows any cross-sectional variation to be included.