By Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS), LASTCenter for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS)
This directions booklet presents technical details on find out how to behavior a outcome research to fulfill your company's wishes and the EPA ideas. It covers quantifying the dimensions of a unlock, dispersion of vapor clouds to an endpoint focus, results for numerous forms of explosions and fires, and the impression of the discharge on humans and structures.Special information: contains CD-ROM with instance difficulties labored utilizing Excel and Quattro professional. to be used with home windows ninety five, ninety eight, and NT.
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Additional info for Guidelines for consequence analysis of chemical releases, Volume 1
0 to maximize the computed flows to achieve a conservative result. 11) can be used to model any discharge of liquid through a hole, provided that the pressures, hole area, and discharge coefficient are known or estimated. For holes in tanks, the pressure upstream of the hole depends on the liquid head and any pressure in the tank head space. The 2-K method presented earlier is a much more general approach and can be used to represent liquid discharge through holes, in place of Eq. 12). By applying the orifice equations for the 2-K method (Hooper, 1981), the discharge coefficient can be calculated directly.
This assumes that friction is represented by a discharge coefficient, CD, and accounts for the pressure due to the liquid head above the hole. 15) applies to any tank of any geometry. The mass discharge decreases with time as the liquid level drops. The maximum discharge rate happens when the leak first occurs. Gas Discharges. Gas discharges may arise from several sources: from a hole at or near a vessel, from a long pipeline, or from relief valves or process vents. Different calculation procedures apply for each of these sources.
Due to a runaway reaction or foaming liquid) A Wind — Direction Pure Vapor Jet V B Immediately Resulting Vapor Cloud V PLi PL Small Hole in Vapor Space of a Pressurized Tank Catastrophic Failure of Pressurized Tank C Jet 3 D Liquid Jet1 Jet 2 V PL d Jet 4 Escape of Liquified Gas from a Pressurized Tank Intermediate Hole in Vapor Space of a Pressurized Tank E F V m. 2. illustrations of some conceivable release mechanisms. In most cases the jet could be two-phase (vapor plus entrained liquid aerosol).