By Raymond F. Wegman
Presents fix tools for adhesive bonded and composite buildings; identifies appropriate fabrics and gear for maintenance; describes harm evaluate standards and strategies, and techniques of inspection prior to and after fix.
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Extra resources for Handbook of Adhesive Bonded Structural Repair
Permanent Repair - Restoi-ation of the structure to its original integrity. DAMAGE ASSESSMENT Methods used f o r damage assessment a r e discussed under Nondestructive Inspection. Typical damage assessment includes the following: - 1. External Damage This is a visual inspection of the structure looking f o r obvious damage such as punctures a n d indications of delamination or impact. All punctures should be covered immediately to prevent further damage (temporary preservation). 2. Delamination - Delamination of a skin-to-core bond and the top layers of a laminate can often be detected by visual inspection along with tapping of the surface.
This type of damage can be detected nondestructively by d r y contact acoustic transmission, a n acousto-ultrasonic technique. (Ref. ) 4. Internal Defects - Internal defects such as voids, distorted core or crushed core can only be detected by nondestructive techniques. 5. Bondline Degradation - Evaluation of adhesive degradation can be made nondestructively by the d r y contact acoustic transmission technique. 6. Skin Cracks - Skin cracks a n d laminate crazing can often be determined by visual inspection.
Skins, may be in order when high service temperatures are encountered. This is because of the lower strength of adhesives a t higher temperatures, hence their limitation in transferring structural loads. If a patch repair is used in these areas it may be necessary to classify the repair as a temporary repair and require more frequent inspections. Table 3-1 Description of Damage Modes Gap or opening in a structure. Fracture A narrow break or fracture in the surface or through the material. Collapsed Deformation caused by a compressive overload (usually transverse) which causes the material to be permanently displaced from its natural shaDe or form.