Handbook of Psychopharmacology: Volume 13 Biology of Mood by Arthur J. Prange Jr., Charles B. Nemeroff (auth.), Leslie L.

By Arthur J. Prange Jr., Charles B. Nemeroff (auth.), Leslie L. Iversen, Susan D. Iversen, Solomon H. Snyder (eds.)

Underlying the layout of the instruction manual of Psychopharmacology is a prejudice that the research of drug impacts at the brain has complex to a level the place uncomplicated examine and scientific software really mesh. those later volumes of the guide are established based on this belief. In yes volumes, teams of substances are handled as periods with chapters starting from easy chemistry to medical software. different volumes are assembled round subject components corresponding to anxiousness or affective problems. therefore, along with chapters on person drug sessions, we now have integrated essays addressing huge parts reminiscent of "The Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal process and Human Be­ havior" and "Peptides and the primary worried procedure. " Surveying those diversified contributions, one comes away with a sentiment that, faraway from being an "applied" technological know-how borrowing from primary mind chemistry and body structure, psychopharmacology has as an alternative supplied uncomplicated researchers with the instruments and conceptual techniques which now are advancing neurobiology to a relevant position in glossy biology. specifically pleasing is the feel that, whereas contributing to an realizing of the way the mind features, psychopharmacology is a self-discipline whose end result supply real support to the mentally sick with delivers of escalating merits sooner or later. L. L. 1. S. D. 1. S. H. S. vii CONTENTS bankruptcy 1 Peptides and the significant apprehensive method ARTHUR]. PRANGE, ]R. , CHARLES B. NEMEROFF, MORRIS A. LIPTON, GEORGE R. BREESE, and IAN C. WILSON 1. advent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. Hypothalamic freeing Hormones: Animal reports. . . . . 2 2. 1. Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH, Thyroliberin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Plotnikoff et al. p. doses of SRIF, 1-4 mg/kg, are active in this paradigm. The mice were not hypophysectomized. v. in rats causes "barrel-rolling" behavior. Animals roll laterally, and this is in contrast to the head-to-tail plane of rotation seen after TRH injection (see above). , 1975b). Havlicek et al. (1976) have studied the effects of SRIF on sleep in rats. They found that the tetradecapeptide reduces slow-wave sleep and nearly abolishes REM sleep. Plotnikoff et al. ( 1974d) found that SRIF has no significant effect on oxotremorine-induced symptoms, though large doses slightly reduce headtwitching and body tremors.

2. Behavioral Effects The early studies of Selye (1950) demonstrated a role for the pituitaryadrenal axis in the reactions of vertebrates to stressful stimuli, implying an adaptive role for ACTH. The pioneering work of de Wied and his coworkers has clearly shown that ACTH also acts on the CNS. This group has demonstrated effects of ACTH and related compounds on biochemical and electrophysiologic correlates of CNS function, as well as on motivational, learning, and memory processes. , 1975a,b). Early studies (Richter and Wislocki, 1930; Richter and Eckert, 1937) demonstrated behavioral deficiencies in rats after partial or total HPX.

PRANGE, JR. ET AL. The difficulties of maintaining HPX animals as well as the timeconsuming procedure of normalization of their behavior led De Wied and co-workers to find a behavioral paradigm more suitable to study the effects of ACTH and related peptides (Greven and De Wied, 1973). Extinction of an avoidance response is inhibited by ACTH treatment (Murphy, J. , and Miller, 1955), and De Wied and his associates found a polejumping avoidance task to be an ideal screening system for testing the behavioral potency of ACTH analogues.

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