By Jytte (EDT)/ Maier, Charles S. (EDT) Klausen
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Extra resources for Has Liberalism Failed Women?: Assuring Equal Representation in Europe and the United States
Democracies must make do not only with “good enough” deliberation, but also with “good enough” aggregation. ” Earlier theorists do not seem to have grasped this point. In l981, for example, James Morone and Theodore Marmor criticized congressional legislation that required citizens on advisory boards to be “broadly representative of the social economic, linguistic and racial populations of the area” by asking rhetorically what demographic characteristics ought to be represented: Common sense rebels against representing left-handers or redheads.
Morone and Theodore R. Marmor,“Representing Consumer Institutions: The Case of American Health Planning,” Ethics 91 (1981), 431 and 437, quoting the National Health Planning and Resources Development Act of l974, which called for consumers of health care to sit on the boards of more than two hundred Health Systems Agencies. ” Representation and Redistricting Issues, ed. Bernard Grofman et al. (Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath, 1982), 98; Pitkin, Concept of Representation, 87–88; Rian Voet, “Gender Representation and Quotas,” Acta Politica 4 (1992), 395; Amy Gutmann and Dennis Thompson, Democracy and Disagreement (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996), 154.
In 1994, Gaspard repeated the argument that because women claim parity on the basis of being “half of humankind,” they claim only 50 percent of the seats and not the 53 percent that would be their due on the basis of proportional group representation. Here she explicitly included “le choix d’une vie de couple échappant à la norme (gays et lesbiennes)” among the groups to which the relations between men and women are not comparable (“De la parité,” 41). See Joan W. Scott,“‘La Querelle des Femmes’ in the Late Twentieth Century,” New Left Review 226 (1997) 3–19 for the anti-American tenor of French arguments against group representation.