How does one cut a triangle? by Alexander Soifer

By Alexander Soifer

How Does One reduce a Triangle? is a piece of artwork, and infrequently, possibly by no means, does one locate the abilities of an artist larger suited for his purpose than we discover in Alexander Soifer and this ebook.

—Peter D. Johnson, Jr.

This pleasant e-book considers and solves many difficulties in dividing triangles into n congruent items and in addition into related items, in addition to many extremal difficulties approximately putting issues in convex figures. The booklet is essentially intended for shrewdpermanent highschool scholars and faculty scholars attracted to geometry, yet even mature mathematicians will discover a lot of latest fabric in it. I very warmly suggest the e-book and wish the readers may have excitement in considering the unsolved difficulties and may locate new ones.

—Paul Erdös

It is most unlikely to express the spirit of the e-book via only directory the issues thought of or perhaps a variety of options. the style of presentation and the light suggestions towards an answer and therefore to generalizations and new difficulties takes this uncomplicated treatise out of the prosaic and into the stimulating realm of mathematical creativity. not just younger proficient humans yet committed secondary academics or even a couple of mathematical sophisticates will locate this analyzing either friendly and profitable.

—L.M. Kelly

Mathematical Reviews

[How Does One reduce a Triangle?] reads like an experience tale. actually, it truly is an experience tale, entire with fascinating characters, moments of pleasure, examples of serendipity, and unanswered questions. It conveys the spirit of mathematical discovery and it celebrates the development as have mathematicians all through history.

—Cecil Rousseau

The newbie, who's drawn to the publication, not just comprehends a scenario in an inventive mathematical studio, not just is uncovered to stable mathematical flavor, but additionally acquires parts of recent mathematical tradition. And (not less significant) the reader imagines the position and position of instinct and analogy in mathematical research; she or he fancies the which means of generalization in sleek arithmetic and excellent connections among diverse components of this technology (that are, as one may well imagine, faraway from one another) that unite them.

—V.G. Boltyanski

SIAM overview

Alexander Soifer is a superb challenge solver and encouraging instructor. His e-book will inform younger mathematicians what arithmetic may be like, and remind older ones who could be at risk of forgetting.

—John Baylis

The Mathematical Gazette

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Every triangle can be cut into any number n of triangles similar to each other, except the first three primes: 2, 3, and 5. ⊓ ⊔ I created Grand II in April 1970, when I served as one of the judges of the Soviet Union National Mathematical Olympiad. The judges liked the problem. They selected the critical part of it for the juniors (ninth graders) competition: Can every triangle be cut into five triangles similar to each other? Then came the meeting to approve the problems with the Chairman of the Organizing Committee, Andrej Nikolaevich Kolmogorov, one of the greatest mathematicians of the twentieth century.

2 Excursion in Linear Algebra 31 How do we find characteristic values λ and the corresponding     x a11 a12 a13 → characteristic vectors v =  y  of a matrix A =  a21 a22 a23  ? z a31 a32 a33 No problem: according to (16),       a11 a12 a13 x x  a21 a22 a23  ·  y  = λ  y . z z a31 a32 a33 By performing the indicated multiplications in the matrix equation above and equating the corresponding components of the left and right sides, we get the following system of equations: a11 x + a12 y + a13 z = λx a21 x + a22 y + a23 z = λy a31 x + a32 y + a33 z = λz or, equivalently, ( a11 − λ) x + a12 y + a13 z = 0 a21 x + ( a22 − λ)y + a23 z = 0 (17) a31 x + a32 y + ( a33 − λ)z = 0.

8, then it must have been cut into two triangles by one of its diagonals. 8) that is split into two triangles similar to each other. From here we travel to a contradiction by exactly the same way as in the previous case (when the middle piece was a triangle). You, my reader, may think that Grand II is solved. In fact we “only” proved that a triangle T with integrally independent angles can not be cut into 2, 3, or 5 triangles similar to each other. But what if such a triangle T does not exist? Cheer up: it exists!

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