Islamic Desk Reference: Compiled from the Encyclopaedia of by E. J. Van Donzel

By E. J. Van Donzel

This one-volume paintings features a precis of the subject-matter of "The Encyclopaedia of Islam". it's going to function a brief reference instrument for these attracted to the faith, the believers and the nations of the Islamic global. All entries are given in English: therefore, names of Arabic beginning which within the West have been corrupted to a different spelling, reminiscent of Ibn Sina to Avicenna, al-Kuhl to alcohol, are came upon less than the latter time period.

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About 200) was regarded in Islamic countries as the most authoritative of the ancient commentators of Aristotle. His materialistic arguments against the immortality of the human soul gave rise to wide discussions which spread from Islamic to Christian learned circles. A major theme in the correspondence between Emperor Frederick II Hohenstaufen and the Sufi Ibn Sabin* is the difference between Aristotle and Alexander over this question. Alexander Romance (A. Iskandar-nama*): the Arabs have known of the Alexander Romance (pseudo-Callisthenes) from early times, since what is said about Moses in Quran XVIII, 59 ff.

Al-anbiq*): name for that part of the distilling apparatus in alchemy which is also called "head" or "cap". The Arabic word was borrowed from Greek ambix. Aleppo (A. Halab*): town in Syria. First mentioned in the xxth c. , Aleppo was conquered by Muslim troops under Khalid b. al-Walid in 636. The monumental Great Mosque was constructed in the viiith c. In 944 the town became the capital of the Hamdanid amir Sayf al-Dawla, whose court was a centre of great literary activity. In 962 it was destroyed by the Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus Phocas.

In the xvith c. Ahmad b. Ibrahim (nicknamed Gran * "the left-handed") almost brought Ethiopia to its knees. With the help of Portuguese troops under Christovao da Gama, he was defeated and slain in 1543. Despite some isolated Muslim successes, Ethiopia was not to be confronted with Islamization until the xixth c. In 1875 Egyptian troops invaded the country but were defeated by Emperor Yohannes. The Sudanese Mahdists were defeated in the battle of Metemma in 1889, in which the emperor lost his life.

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