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This booklet discusses the ornament varieties of Sephardic illuminated Bibles. in contrast to illuminated Passover manuscripts from an identical interval with their wealthy figurative and narrative photo cycles, Bibles are nearly completely aniconic. while the previous borrow seriously from Christian artwork, the Bibles are solely indebted to Islamic tradition.
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Extra info for Jewish Book Art Between Islam and Christianity: The Decoration of Hebrew Bibles in Medieval Spain (The Medieval and Early Modern Iberian World)
141. 62 On the Jews of Navarre, see Leroy (1981); Leroy (1985); Assis and Magdalena (1990); Carrasco (1993); for a recent reappraisal of the situation of the Jews in Navarre, see Gampel (1998). 63 This assessment is according to Leroy (1985), 9. 64 On the immigration of Jews from France between 1329 and 1354, see Carrasco (1993), 57–73. 65 Assis and Magdalena (1990), 21. 60 33 They were allowed to possess swords or knives and even to hold land—rights that were not commonly granted in other Christian countries.
At the same time, ties with the Roman Church became closer and the pope became increasingly involved in political developments in Spain. From then on, the Christian conquest of a Muslim area of the peninsula was considered a crusade, and sometimes was even given military assistance, mainly from France. The ﬁghting on Spanish soil was occasionally joined by English Crusaders making their way along the Atlantic coast en route to the Holy Land. The conquest of Toledo caused another crisis in Muslim society, which was already shaken by the breakdown of the caliphate.
8 Unlike Jewish society of the time, Mudéjar society did not have an upper, aﬄuent class,9 and throughout the Crown, their social status was rather low. Like the Jews, they were servi camerae, “serfs of the royal chamber”—a status constituting full and direct legal dependence upon the king. Most of the Muslims still preferred to leave the conquered regions, and those who remained had to move to the outskirts of the towns. 10 The Mudéjares had the right to keep their property, bear arms, and observe their religion (though usually only after the main mosques were transformed into churches), and they were not expected to join the Christian armed forces ﬁghting against AlAndalus.