Jihad in the West: Muslim Conquests from the 7th to the 21st by Paul Fregosi

By Paul Fregosi

Jihad, the Muslim holy battle opposed to Christians and others, has raged for 1300 years with bloody conquests in Europe relationship from campaigns to transform the infidels within the seventh century to today's random acts of terrorism within the identify of Allah. but this massive unrecorded 'hole' in ecu historical past has been censored and stifled via political and literary gurus who've feared reprisals from indignant Muslims attempting to cover a legacy of brutality significantly extra bloody and 6 instances longer in length than the atrocities of the crusades. this is often the engrossing genuine account of the colossal and little-known Islamic army invasions of Europe, and the key avid gamers who led them, starting round 650CE. The Islamic Arabs (and later the Moors) occupied a few of the Mediterranean Islands, and invaded Spain and Portugal in 711CE, and governed over a lot of the Iberian peninsula for the following 800 years. France used to be attacked and invaded, as used to be Italy, and the ecu coasts all of the method to eire and Iceland. The Muslims swept over the Balkans, besieged Vienna, and have been intermittent masters of Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, and Hungary into the nineteenth century, destroying the Byzantines, taking Constantinople (turning it into Istanbul). bold and unrelenting, the Muslims additionally sought to overcome Austria, and Russia. In a vivid and brisk narrative, Paul Fregosi's distinct and provocative paintings is the 1st, and merely, common historical past of the Jihad, the main ignored and ignored phenomenon in eu heritage.

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It is here that disciples who are passing through can spend the night, as does the master himself during his visits. Only rarely will a disciple stay in a rawda permanently, although such cases do occur. One such long-time resident whom I encountered was Ibrahim, a student at al-Azhar. Ibrahim came from a village in the district of al-Maragha and he was initiated into the Khalwatiyya Dumiyya by Husayn Mu`awad, the present shaykh of the tariqa. Upon arrival in Cairo, he first found a place to stay in the rawda of al-Basatin, in the Qarafa, and later moved on to that of Giza.

Neither muhibbin nor muridin see their attachment as being first and foremost to a tariqa. The terms they use to describe themselves and their relationship with the shaykh are quite significant: they do not speak of themselves as Khalwati but as the children (abna, awlad) of the shaykh, or as his companions (ashab). This practice is not unique for the Khalwatiyya either. At the saints’ day celebrations (mawlid) that are at the core of popular religiosity, various turuq erect their own tents with flags and banners, and the writing on the banner typically identifies the groups as the children or companions of such and such a shaykh, from this or that village, adding only at the end the name of the tariqa.

But when Shaykh Sulayman died in 1959, his followers built a luxurious mausoleum for him in the graveyard of al-Basatin, further north. In spite of this evident break, however, both shaykhs and their khalifa in turn have followed Shaykh al-Dumi’s ways of organizing their tariqa and functioning in society. The various activities of these two branches take place in a number of different settings: in private apartments, often in mosques, and especially in the rawda, an institution specific to these branches.

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