Lamar archaeology: Mississippian chiefdoms in the deep South by J. Mark Williams, Gary Shapiro

By J. Mark Williams, Gary Shapiro

A Dan Josselyn Memorial PublicationLamar Archaeology presents a entire and special evaluation of our wisdom of the overdue prehistoric Indian societies within the Southern Appalachian zone and its peripheries. those Lamar societies have been chiefdom-level teams who outfitted lots of the mounds during this huge area and have been ancestors of later tribes, together with the Creeks and Cherokees. This e-book starts off with a background of the final 50 years of archaeological and old learn and brings jointly for the 1st time all of the on hand information in this early tradition. It additionally offers a useful version for books approximately Southeastern Indian societies via combining simply descriptive details with cutting edge analyses, advancing our wisdom of the prior whereas final firmly grounded within the archaeological facts as truth. participants comprise: Frankie Snow, Chad O. Braley, James B. Langford Jr., Marvin T. Smith, Daniel T. Elliott, Richard R. Polhemus, C. Roger Nance, Gary Shapiro, Mark Williams, John F. Scarry, David G. Anderson, andCharles M. Hudson

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Among these were: Arthur R. Kelly and Clemens de Baillou's excavations at Estatoe (1960), Kelly and Robert S. Neitzel's work at the Chauga site (1961), Kelly and associates' excavations at Sixtoe Field (1965), Kelly's work at the Bell Field mound (1970, 1972), and David Hally's investigations at Potts' Tract (1970) and Little Egypt (1979, 1980). Modern Approaches Among the more interesting papers to appear near the end of this period were those of Lewis Larson on mortuary practices (1971a) and on the causes of Mississippian warfare (1972).

Hudson 214 References Cited 231 Index 253 Page vii FIGURES AND TABLES Figures 1 The Lamar Area 5 2 Conference Participants 7 3 Areas of Chronologies 28 4 Square Ground Lamar Sherds 86 5 Square Ground Lamar Stamped Motifs 87 6 Square Ground Lamar Distribution 88 7 Square Ground Lamar Incised Motifs 91 8 Irene Incised Sherds, Prehistoric 97 9 Irene Incised Sherds, Postcontact 98 10 Rim Treatment of Jars, Prehistoric and Postcontact 99 11 Irene Filfot Stamped Sherds 101 12 Coastal Lamar Vessel Shape Categories 102 13 Coosawattee River Sites 105 14 Ray's Corner Location 119 15 Ray's Corner Vessel Types 122 16 Dallas Minimal Settlement Unit 129 17 Dallas Burial Patterning 130 18 Dallas Burial Age-Sex Profiles 133 19 Dallas Structure and Burial Orientation 135 20 Dallas Culture Settlement Model 136 21 Toqua (Artist's Reconstruction) 137 22 Location of Rodgers-CETA Site 141 23 Oconee Valley Mound Sites 150 24 Dyar Site Location 154 25 Oconee Valley, Sites near Shoals 155 26 Oconee Valley Aquatic and Terrestrial Fauna 159 Page viii 27 Oconee Valley Cold versus Warm Season Fauna 160 28 Oconee Valley Vessel Forms 161 29 Oconee Valley Jar Size Frequencies 162 30 Paired Mound Sites in Georgia 166 31 Northern Florida Ethnic Areas 179 32 Idealized Mississippian Chiefly Succession 202 33 Hypothetical Mississippian Polities, Vicinity of the Savannah River 204 34 Mississippian Period Archaeological Sites in the Savannah River Region 209 Tables 1 Sherd Count from Lamar Shell Midden at Site 9JD78 85 2 Sherd Counts from Selected Square Ground Lamar Sites 90 3 Aboriginal Ceramics from Site 9MC41, All Proveniences 96 4 Distances between Barnett Phase Sites 112 5 Coosawattee Valley Ceramic Counts 114 6 Oconee Valley Floodplain Soils 149 7 Oconee Valley Faunal Remains 156 8 Apalachee Grave Goods Distribution 182 Page 1 PART I LAMAR ARCHAEOLOGY Page 3 Introduction From the mountains of east Tennessee to the low hills of north Florida and from the coast of South Carolina to the central Alabama Piedmont lived the Native Americans known to archaeologists as the Mississippian period Lamar people.

Page 22 There is still much room for studies of all sorts in this area designed to present quasi ethnographies of these archaeologically known Lamar societies. Several of the papers presented in Part III of this book directly address this concern. This kind of work is especially important if we are to tell the public what life was like in the Lamar towns and homesteads. Belief System Studies There is no doubt that this is the most difficult area for us to probe. There is also no doubt that it is one of the most fascinating.

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