By Nancy D. Lapp (auth.)
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Additional resources for Landing Votes: Representation and Land Reform in Latin America
Demand is a necessary but insufficient factor; without a perceived need for land reform, no motivation for providing reform would exist. However, need did not in itself lead to land reform. Demand for land reform existed at times when land reforms were not implemented, and the level of demand for land reform varied among Latin American countries that experienced reforms. Land reforms occurred in countries at different levels of modernization, as measured by factors such as urbanization, the share of agriculture in the economy, and agricultural workforce.
S. Overseas Loans and Grants and Assistance from International Organizations, Washington, DC: Department of State, various years. 4 — Venezuela 1945 1959 625 10 1948 1960 10 39 Notes a See table in appendix. b Difference in votes cast in elections before and after change in electoral rules. 1. d Participation subsequently decreased. e Redemocratization. f Estimate problematic, since elections resumed after undemocratic period. by elected governments at other times, such as in Panama and Peru, had little effect.
Colombia The dynamics of land reform differed slightly in the context of a two-party system, of which Colombia is the main example. In a two-party system, punishing incumbents is relatively easy: when dissatisfied, one votes for the other party. The distinction between parties is clear and whether institutionalized or not, incumbent parties have to compete with the opposition knowing that voters can choose the other party if dissatisfied. Two parties, the Conservative and Liberal, traditionally dominated politics in Colombia, and two major instances of expanding suffrage and the passage of land reform laws occurred.