Materials for High Temperature Engineering Applications by Geoffrey W. Meetham M.B.E., Prof. Dr. ir. Marcel H. Van de

By Geoffrey W. Meetham M.B.E., Prof. Dr. ir. Marcel H. Van de Voorde (auth.)

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Temperature and life tubes in ultra-supercritical pulverised coal power generation plants have been creep limited and have required improved creep strength materials in order to operate at higher temperatures. In components such as the superheater outlet header and the latest air-cooled gas turbine blades, however, the major design consideration involves thermal stresses leading to complex creep-fatigue interactions. Creep considerations alone are becoming less common in high temperature plant.

5 Physical Properties Density Density is of particular importance in high-speed rotating machinery, such as gas turbines, where centrifugal stress is a major element of overall stressing. Materials with high specific strength are preferred in such applications. Density also influences the natural frequency of vibration of components and may consequently influence fatigue behaviour. Thermal Expansion Coefficient Thermal expansion is important in controlling clearances and consequent stresses developed as a result of temperature changes in any assembly of component parts of different materials.

When the dislocations reach the precipitates, they must by-pass them by climbing or looping or must cut through them. Both mechanisms operate depending on precipitate size as illustrated schematically in Fig. 15 and there is an optimum precipitate size for maximum strengthening in different alloy systems. [1] The strengthening produced depends on the compatibility between precipitate and matrix in crystal structure and lattice parameter and on the volume fraction of the precipitate and its size.

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