By William F. Hosford, Robert M. Caddell
This publication is helping the engineer comprehend the rules of steel forming and study forming problems--both the mechanics of forming techniques and the way the homes of metals have interaction with the methods. during this 3rd version, a complete bankruptcy has been dedicated to forming restrict diagrams and diverse facets of stamping and one other on different sheet forming operations. Sheet checking out is roofed in a separate bankruptcy. assurance of sheet steel homes has been increased. attention-grabbing end-of-chapter notes were additional all through, in addition to references. greater than two hundred end-of-chapter difficulties also are integrated.
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Additional info for Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy
Instability will occur when F1 = F2 equals zero. 9) dσ1 /σ1 = −d A1 /A1 = dε1 . 5. Effect of the inhomogeneity factor, f, on the limit strain, ε∗b , outside of the neck. 25 was assumed. 6. Effects of f and n on the uniform elongation, ε∗b . 11) ε¯ = 2ε1 = 2ε2 = −ε3 . 4. 7. State of balanced biaxial tension. 14) at instability. Note that this is twice the instability strain for uniaxial tension. 8 is a free-body diagram of half of a pressurized thin-wall spherical pressure vessel. 8. Free-body diagram of half of a pressurized thin-wall spherical pressure vessel.
Han, ed. Tensile Testing, ASM International, 1992. W. F. Hosford, Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Cambridge University Press, 2005. W. Johnson and P. B. Mellor, Engineering Plasticity, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1973. E. G. Thomsen, C. T. Yang, and S. Kobayashi, Mechanics of Plastic Deformation in Metal Processing, Macmillan, 1965. 1. 505 in in diameter, is tested, the maximum load of 120 ksi was recorded at an elongation of 40%. What would the load be on an identical tensile specimen when the elongation is 20%?
5) The two regions, a and b, must support the same force so Fa = Fb , or A a σa = A b σb . 3. Stepped tensile specimen. 3. 4. Strains induced by various inhomogeneity factors. 05 Aa0 exp(−εa )K εan = Ab0 exp(−εb )K εbn . 7 simplifies to f exp(−εa )εan = exp(−εb )εbn . 8 can be solved numerically to give εb as a function of εa . 25. 25 where necking occurs. This implies that the maximum strain outside the neck equals n if f = 1. However if f < 1, εb lags behind εa and saturates at ε∗ which may be considerably less than n.