Metallography: Principles and Practice by George F. Vander Voort

By George F. Vander Voort

Providing a accomplished resource of data on metallographic options and their software to the learn of metals, ceramics, and polymers, this paintings is out there once more from ASM. It includes an intensive choice of micro- and macrographs. This confirmed reference for metallographers, engineers, technicians has additionally been discovered priceless through scholars learning actual metallurgy, metallography and fabrics science.Contents hide: macrostructure, specimen guidance for gentle microscopy; microstructure; mild microscopy; hardness checking out; quantitative microscopy. the amount positive aspects a number of appendices directory etchants and specimen coaching methods and in addition contains a accomplished index. The publication was once written by way of George F. Vander Voort, FASM, a number one specialist in metallographic perform.

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Woody fractures generally result from gross alloy or nonmetallic segregations. 4 6 METALLOGRAPHY Fractures that occur during service or processing sometimes reveal features that indicate quality problems. Figure 1-37 shows a fractured case-hardened carbon steel bar that broke during heat treatment. The fine outer rim of the fracture reveals the depth of hardening. The central coarse-grained area indicates an unsound condition. Hot-acid etching of a disc cut from behind the fracture reveals a loose center and a segregated condition.

In the fracturing of hardened steel discs, a mold can be designed to support the specimen edges, while a top cover is used to locate a chisel over the center of the specimen. The chisel is struck with a sledgehammer to make the break. The mold prevents the broken pieces from striking personnel in the area. If the fracture is desired at a particular spot, it is useful to nick the specimen at the desired spot, and a fracture press is a very useful tool for such work. One end of a specimen can also be placed in a sturdy vise and the specimen struck on the other end.

A general review of some of these topics is provided in the book by Enos [29]. 1 Composition In the identification of unknown metals in the field [30], fracture examination can provide a clue to the identity of the material. Along with other visual features, such as color and apparent density, the fracture appearance can be used to provide a rough separation of metals. Ostrofsky provides the following guidelines for use with iron-base alloys [30]: Metal Fracture appearance Gray cast iron Malleable iron Wrought iron Low-carbon steel Tool steel Coarse grain, gray Fine grain, black Fibrous, light gray Fine grain, light gray Very fine grain (silky), light gray Prior to the development of rapid chemical analysis procedures, the steel melter followed the progress of the refining process by fracture examination.

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