By Yuan F. Zheng, Hooshang Hemami (auth.), Spyros G. Tzafestas (eds.)
Microprocessors play a dominant function in computing device expertise and feature contributed uniquely within the improvement of many new options and layout concepts for modem commercial platforms. This contribution is excessively excessive within the quarter of robot and production platforms. notwithstanding, it's the editor's feeling reference booklet describing this contribution in a cohesive method and overlaying the foremost and software program matters is missing. the aim of this booklet is strictly to fill during this hole in the course of the assortment and presentation of the adventure of a couple of specialists and execs operating in numerous educational and business environments. The e-book is split in 3 components. half 1 comprises the 1st 4 chapters and offers with the usage of microprocessors and electronic sign processors ( DSPs ) for the computation of robotic dynamics. The emphasis this is on parallel computation with specific difficulties attacked being activity granularity, activity allocation/scheduling and communique matters. bankruptcy I, via Zheng and Hemami, is anxious with the real-time multiprocessor computation of torques in robotic keep watch over structures through the Newton-Euler equations. This reduces considerably the peak of the assessment tree which ends up in better parallel processing. bankruptcy 2, by means of D'Hollander, examines completely the automated scheduling of the Newton-Euler inverse dynamic equations. the automated application decomposition and scheduling concepts constructed are embedded in a device used to generate multiprocessor schedules from a high-level language program.
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Extra resources for Microprocessors in Robotic and Manufacturing Systems
NplT'~ is much reduced, and the complicated process of task allocation among the satellite CPU's is avoided. The parallel processing strategy developed here is applied to a two link robot system. 106. The simulation results are generalized to industrial robots with six links. ained. S. Luh, "An Anatomy of Industrial Robots and Their Controls," IEEE Trans. Automat. Contr. Vol. 2, pp. 133-153. F. Zheng and F. R. s," International Journal of Robotics and Automation, Vol. 2, pp. 70-78, 1988. E. Whitney, "Resolved Motion Rate Control of Manipulators and Human Prostheses," IEEE Trans.
The utilization deteriorates when p exceeds the theoretical speedup limit, Smax = E / L, or The processor utilization in a p-processor system is Up • • when the interconnection network saturates. For p» Smaz, the processor utilization behaves like Up I':j Smax/P. When P I':j Smax, the bus conflicts become the main bottleneck (fig. 7). Although additional memories help to diminish the communication overhead, increasing the number of memories shows only a marginal effect on the performance. The required number of memories to avoid a bus saturation is given by equation 9.
X(n) -'--'-r---/ Z - 1 Z -1 z-· ·····8 j o EB Del1lY Add [> ~1ultiDly Figure 1. Basic structure of a FIR filter. In those general, DSPs can be said to prove efficient in all applications whose implementation algorithms present 51 the following characteristics: intensive use of addition and multiplication, especially multiply-accumulate operations (MAC). intensive use of shift operations in order to manage data on different scales. strictly iterative operations on series with a linear index. The presence of instructions for signal processing, however, would not be sufficient to obtain the high performance levels of modern DSPs, if it were not coupled with the following features: pipelined architecture with a high degree of parallelism  ; the presence of on-chip RAM which allows faster management of a significant number of sample data from the off-chip memory; a hardwired design for heavier instructions such as multiplication or division (instead of a microprogrammed implementation) which makes execution faster ; arithmetical accuracy to keep errors within acceptable tolerance limits during iterations.