Modernization as Spectacle in Africa

For postcolonial Africa, modernization used to be noticeable as an important end result of the fight for independence and as an important to the good fortune of its newly proven states. given that then, the rhetoric of modernization has pervaded coverage, tradition, and improvement, lending one of those political theatricality to nationalist framings of modernization and Africans’ perceptions in their position within the worldwide economic climate. those 15 essays deal with governance, creation, and social existence; the function of media; and the discourse surrounding large-scale improvement initiatives, revealing modernization's deep results at the expressive tradition of Africa.

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See the argument made by Spivak (2003, 1–5). See also Pletsch (1981). 38 | Percy C. Hintzen 5. From the historicist perspective, it is the “lack” or “absence” of reason and rationality that locates the colonized in the space of modernity’s prehistory and that confined them to “an imaginary ‘waiting room’ of history” (Chakrabarty 2000, 8). 6. See Lewis (1950) and Farrell (1980, 57). 7. Rostow (1953), see especially chapter 4. 8. Signaled in the very title of Rostow’s most influential book, The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-­Communist Manifesto (1960).

This sets the stage for assumption of power by “radical praetorians [in] middle class break-­t hrough coups”—the latter, in turn and at the appropriate time, to be replaced by modern leaders in a one-­ party system. There is little room for democratic practice during this transition. Democracy, as it turns out, must wait for the appropriate moment in the process of modernization. This is because democracy requires strong, adaptable, coherent po­liti­cal institutions: effective bureaucracies, well organized po­liti­cal parties, a high degree of popu­lar participation in pub­lic affairs, working systems of civilian control over the military, extensive activity by the government in the economy, and reasonably effective procedures for regulating succession and controlling po­liti­cal conflict.

Structural adjustment regimes imposed by the IMF and World Bank had the direct effect of reducing significantly or eliminating altogether “negative externalities,” particularly in the form of transfer payments charged to international businesses and their domestic partners imposed and supported by the state. Structural adjustment policies also increased “positive externalities” by demanding state investment in supportive infrastructure and state legislation of fiscal and monetary policies favorable to globally engaged business.

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