Mycoheterotrophy: The Biology of Plants Living on Fungi by Vincent S. F. T. Merckx (auth.), Vincent Merckx (eds.)

By Vincent S. F. T. Merckx (auth.), Vincent Merckx (eds.)

Over the process evolution, a number of plant lineages have came upon how one can receive water, minerals, and carbohydrates from fungi. a few crops are capable make the most fungi to such an quantity that they lose the necessity for photosynthesis. the facility of a plant to continue to exist fungal carbon is named mycoheterotrophy. This fascinating procedure has interested botanists for hundreds of years, but many elements of mycoheterotrophy have remained elusive for a protracted time.

Mycoheterotrophy: The Biology of vegetation dwelling on Fungi explores the biology of mycoheterotrophs, delivering basic insights into their ecology, variety, and evolution. Written by way of well known specialists within the box and strengthened with lavish illustrations and images, this quantity offers a thematic evaluate of other points of mycoheterotrophy. accomplished and without problems obtainable, Mycoheterotrophy: The Biology of crops dwelling on Fungi is a important source for researchers and scholars who're attracted to the method of mycoheterotrophy.

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26 Mycoheterotrophy—In some species spores germinate without delay while on the surface of the ground, and then form chlorophyllous gametophytes (Lycopodiella). In other species there may be delay of many years in germination, by which time the spores may have been buried and they will become colorless and dependent on a mycorrhizal association. An arbuscular mycorrhizal association appears to occur in all species growing under natural circumstances (Sporne 1962; Winther and Friedman 2008 and references therein).

This lack of fossils is probably due to the soft tissue decaying swiftly and the habitats where these plants grow providing little chance for fossilization. Nevertheless the family must have an ancient origin because of their large number of plesiomorphic characters. ” Mycoheterotrophy—The prothallus of all genera is mycorrhizal, the appropriate arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus is needed for the growth of the prothallus (Winther and Friedman 2007; Smith and Read 2008). In most cases the prothallus is subterraneous and lacks chlorophyll, although cases of superficial green prothalli have been reported (Sporne 1962).

T. Merckx et al. 24 reticulately ornamented spores that are permanently retained in tetrads (Schuster 1992). Though speculative, it is tempting to invoke the subterranean habitat of A. mirabilis as a selective force in the evolution of this divergent spore morphology. Given that the thalli of A. mirabilis can be found up to 20 cm beneath the surface of Sphagnum peat, it is unlikely that any photosynthesis occurs in this liverwort. Wickett et al. (2008a, b) demonstrated that photosynthesis is likely impossible due to the pseudogenization of, and relaxation of purifying selection on several of the plastid genes that encode structural subunits of the photosynthetic apparatus.

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