By Eric J. Hobsbawm
Eric Hobsbawm's really good enquiry into the query of nationalism received additional approval for his 'colossal stature ... his incontrovertible excellence as an historian, and his authoritative and hugely readable prose'. contemporary occasions in japanese Europe and the previous Soviet republics have considering the fact that bolstered the significant significance of nationalism within the background of political evolution and upheaval. This moment version has been up to date within the gentle of these occasions, with a last bankruptcy addressing the impression of the dramatic adjustments that experience taken position. it is also extra maps to demonstrate nationalities, languages and political divisions throughout Europe within the 19th and 20th centuries.
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Extra info for Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality (Canto)
Even the small lead which the British main- tained in coal is not as significant as it might seem. The British exported a large quantity of their coal; the Germans used their coal at home. 1 Austria-Hungary was not negligible economically; after 1867 she kept up much on the French level. Russia remained backward until about 1890. Then she developed 1 On the other hand, a good deal of the British coal went to France, which always imported one-third of her supplies. The combined Entente figure was therefore higher than the German.
It is possible to ascertain the populations of the Great Powers, though the Russian figures are conjectures before 1897; it is more difficult to say what use they made of these populations. No general staff had a precise idea how many men could be tion into the future ; for a statistical recalled for effective service in war-time; and in fact the pressure made them enrol millions of men, whom they had of war previously regarded as long past military age. Before 1914 military authorities everywhere expected war to be decided by the first great battles, and therefore concentrated on the number of men actually under arms.
Though all these moves soon became out of date with the spread of revolu- tion to central Europe, they already sketched the attitude of the Powers in the following years. , 8 Mar. 1848. Hoetzsch, Peter von Meyendorff, ii, nos. 218, 219. It is often forgotten that, though Frederick William wrote ceaseless hysterical letters to the tsar, he also wrote ceaseless hysterical letters to Queen Victoria. 3 Palmerston to Bloomfield (St. Petersburg), Ponsonby (Vienna), Westmorland (Berlin), 4 Mar. 1848. lor), 2 2 REVOLUTION 1848] IN EUROPE 7 the existence of the settlement of 1815, yet without any concrete grievance; Great Britain believed that peace could be preserved by conciliating French feeling; Russia wished to push the two German powers into a defence of conservatism without being herself; Austria was willing to be pushed forward she could have an assurance of Russian support; and Prussia committed if clung indecisively to Great Britain and Russia, tempted by a revision of Europe, fearful that it would be executed at her expense.