Near-critical and Supercritical Water and Their Applications by Zhen Fang, Chunbao (Charles) Xu

By Zhen Fang, Chunbao (Charles) Xu

The booklet presents basic chemistry and homes of near-critical water (NCW) and supercritical water (SCW), standards and challenges/solutions in reactor layout for NCW and SCW techniques, and up to date experiences and perform of a variety of their functions in bio refineries together with: construction of hydrochars from biomass, SCW oxidation (SCWO) for waste therapy, SCW gasification (SCWG) of biomass and waste for hydrogen and methane creation, hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass, construction of chemical compounds and SCWO of biofuels for strength. It additionally offers techno-economic research of hydrogen construction through SCWG of biomass. The booklet can be hugely crucial for either educational researchers and business practitioners for constructing novel bio refinery applied sciences and procedures making use of NCW or SCW for therapy of assorted natural waste streams and construction of bio-energy and bio-based chemical compounds from bio-renewable resources.

Prof. Dr. Zhen Fang is chief and founding father of biomass staff, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical backyard, chinese language Academy of Sciences, China.

Dr. Chunbao (Charles) Xu is presently an affiliate Professor of Chemical Engineering and NSERC/FP suggestions business examine Chair in wooded area Bio refinery at Western collage, Canada.

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J Phys Chem. 1994;98:12080–5. 10. Huang SH, Radosz M. Equation of state for small, large, polydisperse, and associating molecules. Ind Eng Chem Res. 1990;29:2284–94. 1 Hydrogen Bonding in Supercritical Water 35 11. Vlachou T, Prinos I, Vera JH, Panayiotou CG. Nonrandom distribution of free volume in fluids and their mixtures: hydrogen-bonded systems. Ind Eng Chem Res. 2002;41:1057–63. 12. Marcus Y. Supercritical water: relationships of certain measured properties to the extent of hydrogen bonding obtained from a semi-empirical model.

5) and the partial pair correlation functions. 15 D was required to conform to results generally accepted for the pair correlation functions in SCW. The presence of a third water molecule near a 1 Hydrogen Bonding in Supercritical Water 19 hydrogen bonded pair enhanced the probability of hydrogen bonding over a wide range of O–O–O angles (>72ı ) rather than the tetrahedral angle (109ı ) as in ambient water. Mountain [14] applied MD simulations to supercritical water using the TIP4P potential on 108 water molecules and derived the partial pair correlation functions g(O–O, r), g(O–H, r), and g(H–H, r) for several SCW states.

Valyashko and Urusova [97] presented a small scale figure with the mole fraction solubilities xsalt (t) of Na2 CO3 , Li2 SO4 , Na2 SO4 , K2 SO4 , and BaCl2 in SCW, ranging up to ca. 15 mol%, and of NaCl, NaBr, KCl, and Sr(NO3 )2 , ranging up to at least 30 mol%. The solubilities increase with increasing temperatures. Pressures as large as 40 MPa are involved in the saturated solutions, but they are lower than those in pure SCW at corresponding temperatures. The phase diagrams of such systems can be complicated by liquid immiscibility and other features.

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