By David L. Block (auth.), David L. Block, J. Mayo Greenberg (eds.)
The date: September 30, 1880 where: a personal observatory in Hastings-on-Hudson occupation of the observer: A doctor The tool: An l1-inch Clark refractor. the importance of that evening marked one of many really nice turning issues within the improvement of astronomical thoughts: Dr Henry Draper, a filthy rich manhattan physician, had secured the 1st photo of a nebula: a 51-minute publicity on a dry gelatinobromide plate displaying the wispy nebulosity of the Orion Nebula. via March 1882, Draper had secured an publicity of 137 mins, exhibiting some distance richer aspect of either shiny and darkish positive aspects. the remaining is histapy. The photographic period heralded in a universe the place tricks of the presence of cosmic airborne dirt and dust have been strongly alluded to: from star-forming areas similar to Messier 17, to the Horsehead Nebula in Orion, to the awesome darkish finger within the Cone Nebula, to the fabulous darkish bands within the aircraft of our Milky approach. "Historically, astromomers from the very starting were fearful of dust.
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Extra resources for New Extragalactic Perspectives in the New South Africa: Proceedings of the International Conference on “Cold Dust and Galaxy Morphology” held in Johannesburg, South Africa, January 22–26, 1996
Surely some clues to its existence and nature ought to emerge from the comparison of dynamical theory with the cornucopia of recent observations? Here again NIR imaging is looking through the smoke to reveal the massive stellar components far more reliably than we were able to do in the optical. This puts us in a good position to re-examine the whole field of spiral dynamics. (c) Now that HST is delivering such startling pictures of the distant Universe we realize we cannot interpret them without first knowing the K-corrections quite accurately.
Respectively. Refractive indices for graphite were obtained from Draine (1985) while those for amorphous carbon are from Rouleau and Martin (1991). It is apparent from these data that grain temperatures can fall to very low values (~ 3I() in the interval between temperature spikes. As expected from thermodynamic considerations, those particles which initially reach the highest transient temperatures, cool to the lowest final temperature over the interval tp. For a 1nm particle in an unattenuated ISRF, tp ""' 10 5 - 106 sec.
34 D. L. Block and J. M. ), New Extragalactic Perspectives in the New South Africa, 34-49. © 1996 Kluwer Academic Publishers. J. C. MATHER 35 1. Introduction The COBE satellite was designed to measure the radiation from the early and distant universe, the cosmic microwave and infrared background radiation, but has also provided some of the best measurements of diffuse foreground radiation at wavelengths from 1 pm to 1 cm. The foreground originates in starlight, the interstellar medium, and the interplanetary dust.